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Jack R. Harlan (1917-1998) - Plant Explorer, Archaeobotanist, Geneticist and Plant Breeder1 - O. Qualset

1 This book, derived from the symposium, “Origins of Agriculture and Domestication of Crops in the Near East,” May 10-14, 1997 convened at ICARDA near Aleppo, Syria, is dedicated to the memory of Jack Harlan. He prepared the short chapter appearing in this book for presentation at the Symposium, but he was unable to attend because of an injury. He was very pleased and appreciative of the recognition given him at the Symposium, but unfortunately, he died 26 August 1998 and did not see this publication. He was born 7 June 1917 in Washington, DC.

Jack Rodney Harlan had a passion for understanding crop plants, their origins, the people who created them, and their use in sustaining the global human population. His career directions were signaled early as he followed the work of his father, Harry V. Harlan, whose research on barley breeding methodologies and plant collection expeditions had a great impact on Jack, and, for that matter, plant breeders throughout the world.

He followed with great interest the long discussions of his father and Nikolay Ivanovich Vavilov, an occasional guest of the Harlan household. Jack had hoped to study with the great Vavilov after completing the Bachelor of Science degree from George Washington University in 1938. He even studied Russian along with other languages during his school days. His hopes were dashed, however, because of the difficult times Vavilov encountered during the latter years of his career. Jack reported in The Living Fields (1995)2, his last book, the following exchange between his father and Vavilov: Harry Harlan was in regular correspondence with Vavilov. If Vavilov began his letter with “My dear Dr. Harlan...” there was something wrong at Vavilov's institute in Russia. If he responded with “Dear Dr. Harlan...”, things were more or less normal. So when Harry Harlan wrote to Vavilov about young Jack studying in Leningrad the reply came immediately “My Dear Dr. Harlan, what you said about Chinese barley is very interesting....” Since Harry Harlan had said nothing about Chinese barley, it was an indication that things were not going well for Vavilov and hence Jack would not be going to Russia after all. Instead, he went to the University of California at Berkeley and was the first graduate student to receive the PhD with the great botanist and evolutionist G. Ledyard Stebbins.

2 Titles of papers and books and dates are referenced in the accompanying bibliography of Jack R. Harlan.
Jack began his professional career as forage and rangeland grass breeder for the US Department of Agriculture in 1942 at Woodward, Oklahoma and in 1951 he transferred to Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. While holding a joint appointment as Professor of Genetics at the University, he began to teach courses and supervised graduate students. He left the USDA in 1961 and joined the faculty of Oklahoma State University as a full-time Professor. In 1966 he moved to the University of Illinois as Professor of Plant Genetics in the Department of Agronomy. A year later, with J.M.J. de Wet, he founded the Crop Evolution Laboratory. In 1984 he became Professor Emeritus as he ended his formal professional career. However, after retirement he continued to write and lecture at many institutions, including two extended periods at the University of California, Davis, where he completed the revision of Crops and Man and formulated the basic outline of The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage.

He developed a deeper understanding of the domestication of many crops through his extensive plant exploration work and astute observations in some 45 countries on all of the continents over a period of 35 years.3 Less known is his extensive archaeobotanical work which helped shape his views on the origins of agriculture.4 His plant exploration work is legendary for the large number and diversity of species that he collected. Those collections remain his legacy in genebanks throughout the world, and especially in the USA, from where samples of many of the accessions he collected were returned to their home country after being lost from local genebanks. A fitting tribute to his plant explorations was made at the Harlan Symposium in Aleppo, Syria in May 1997. He was presented in absentia with a mosaic made from seeds of barley, sorghum, rice and other crops derived from his original collections. The design was done by a local artist at ICARDA in the form of a map of Africa and Asia where he had done so much field work. Jack treasured this token of respect because it symbolized his great interest in crop geography and diversity. This art piece will be placed on display at the University of Illinois and later will be returned to ICARDA for permanent curation.

3 1948: Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon; 1960: Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Ethiopia; 1964: Turkey, Israel, Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia; 1966: Philippines, Thailand, India; 1967: Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Benin, Nigeria; 1968: Sudan, Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone; 1969: Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia; 1971: Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Senegal; 1972: Mexico, Peru; 1973: Mexico, Guatemala; 1974: China, Colombia; 1977: Jordan, Colombia, Mexico; 1978: India; 1979: Australia, Philippines, Jordan; 1982: Bangladesh.

4 1960: Iran; 1964: Turkey; 1977 and 1979: Jordan; 1983: Russia.

Jack Harlan was completely committed to the concept that ex situ conservation of crops was necessary to capture the products of millennia of crop evolution. These genetic resources may not be used for a long time to come in plant breeding or other studies, but the use of even one of the thousands of accessions he collected justified the whole effort. Jack enjoyed telling of a nondescript wheat he collected in eastern Turkey:
“The potential value of a collection cannot be assessed in the field. Perhaps this statement could best be illustrated by PI 178383, a wheat I collected in a remote part of Eastern Turkey in 1948. It is a miserable looking wheat, tall, thin-stemmed, lodges badly, is susceptible to leaf rust, lacks winter hardiness yet is difficult to vernalize, and has poor baking qualities. Understandably, no one paid any attention to it for some 15 years. Suddenly, stripe rust became serious in the northwestern states and PI 178383 turned out to be resistant to four races of stripe rust, 35 races of common bunt, ten races of dwarf bunt and to have good tolerance to flag smut and snow mould. The improved cultivars based on PI 178383 are reducing losses by a matter of some millions of dollars per year.” (from Practical problems in exploration: Seed crops, 1975)
Jack was a very keen student of Vavilov's work, but as he observed crops and wild species throughout the world, he could see, as a few others had also recognized, that the centers of crop origins described by Vavilov were centers of diversity and centers of long-standing agricultural activity, which may or may not represent centers of crop evolution or domestication. He synthesized his observations in a classic paper Agricultural Origins: Centers and Noncenters (1971) and introduced the concept of “noncenters” as a complement and refinement of Vavilovian theories of crop origins and diversity:
“I propose the theory that agriculture originated independently in three different areas and that, in each case, there was a system composed of a center of origin and a noncenter, in which activities of domestication were dispersed over a span of 5,000 to 10,000 kilometers. One system includes a definable Near East center and a noncenter in Africa; another system includes a North Chinese center and a noncenter in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific; the third system includes a Mesoamerican center and a South American noncenter. There are suggestions that, in each case, the center and noncenter interact with each other. Crops did not necessarily originate in centers (in any conventional concept of the term), nor did agriculture necessarily develop in a geographical center.”
He revisited this matter almost 25 years later in The Living Fields (1995):
“How did the Vavilovian theory fare? We can credit him with three bull's eyes: Peru, Oaxaca (Mexico), and Palestine are dead center in three of his eight centers. Furthermore, agriculture also evolved independently in China, southeast Asia and Ethiopia, centers in his scheme. Ethiopia is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa visited by Vavilov and the Russian scientists did not know Africa well until the last two decades. This left some gaps in the theory. There were other independent origins, but by and large his essay of 1926 was a landmark and still influential. As of that date it was a remarkable perception, but based more on intuition than data.”
He readily recognized the great value of wild relatives of crop plants as gene resources for plant breeding. While this concept was not new, he and his colleague, J.M.J. deWet, formalized the concept of genepools for use in plant breeding in Towards a Rational Classification of Cultivated Plants (1971) as primary (for hybridization of cultigens within the same species), secondary (for hybridization of cultigens with closely related compatible species), and tertiary (for hybridization of cultigens with more distantly related species, often requiring unusual steps, such as embryo rescue with artificial media). This classification has been useful in setting priorities for collecting plant genetic resources and as a reference point for use in designing breeding strategies.

He returned to the need for conservation of wild species in a post-Green Revolution paper, Genetics of Disaster (1972) in which he formulated many of his concerns about 'genetic vulnerability' and 'genetic wipeout.' This paper also hints at the need for in situ conservation, a topic that he held in secondary importance to ex situ conservation for practical reasons, as revealed in Evolution of cultivated plants (1970):

“For the sake of future generations, we MUST collect and study wild and weedy relatives of our cultivated plants as well as the domesticated races. These sources of germplasm have been dangerously neglected in the past, but the future may not be so tolerant. In the plant breeding programs of tomorrow we cannot afford to ignore any source of useable genes.”
His views, expressed in several papers in the late 1960s and 1970s, were not unheeded, however. He joined others in landmark meetings with FAO in Rome and in Beltsville, Maryland to set in place the modern era of plant genetic resources conservation as a system of collection, documentation, evaluation, and ex situ conservation.. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources cum International Plant Genetic Resources Institute was established in the recently formed Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research as a direct outcome of those jointly expressed concerns. Jack Harlan is prominent among the founders - Sir Otto Frankel, Erna Bennett, Jack Hawkes, Dieter Bommer, M.S. Swaminathan, John Creech and a few others - of the modern movement which established plant genetic resources as an interdisciplinary field for scientific study and for biological conservation. This movement began to flourish in the 1980s and is sustained to this time, giving testimony to the wisdom of those early visionaries.

Still, Jack's words in Our vanishing genetic resources (1975) ring true today:

“The coevolution of crops and man in subsistence agricultural economies is one of the most fascinating of all subjects for the student of evolution whether he be interested in plant or human cultural evolution. But, as with so many things in this world, the past is being destroyed by the present. Centers of diversity have been wiped out in recent decades. Indigenous tribal cultures and social customs have collapsed as well. Authentic indigenous cultivars and landraces are becoming collector's items as much as Luristan bronzes, African masks and figurines, or precolumbian Indian art. The world of N.I. Vavilov is vanishing and the sources of genetic variability he knew are drying up. The patterns of variation... may no longer be discernible in a few decades and living traces of the long coevolution of cultivated plants may well disappear forever.”
Harlan's philosophy of the origins of agriculture was echoed throughout the Symposium. While many details about the origins of agriculture remain to be discovered, Jack offered this guiding principal in some of his final writings:
“First, we will not and cannot find a time or place where agriculture originated. We will not and cannot because it did not happen that way. Agriculture is not the result of a happening, an idea, an invention, discovery or instruction by a god or goddess. It emerged as a result of long periods of intimate coevolution between plants and man. Animals are not essential; plants supply over 90% of the food consumed by humans. The coevolution took place over millennia and over vast regions measured in terms of thousands of kilometers. There were many independent tentatives in many locations that fused over time to produce effective food production systems. Origins are diffuse in both time and space.” (The Living Fields, 1995)
We see that his long-standing view of spatial diffuseness and multiple origins of agricultural origins, first expressed in his 1951 paper Anatomy of gene centers, and elaborated in Agricultural Origins: Centers and Noncenters in 1971 have stood over several decades - another of the legacies of Jack Harlan that embody the framework of knowledge about the origins and maintenance of crop genetic diversity that was the theme of his lifetime of research.

Recognitions Received

Jack Harlan received many accolades during his career, most of which are mentioned below. He expressed great appreciation for being remembered at the Symposium dedicated to him, but I believe his greatest satisfaction came in receiving the Vavilov Medal during the Vavilov Centennial Celebration in Moscow and St. Petersburg (Leningrad) in 1987. He was one of the few of the honored guests who actually knew Vavilov personally.

Jack Harlan received numerous honors and awards, including the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship (1959), the American Grassland Council Merit Award (1962), the Frank N. Meyer Memorial Medal (1971), Crop Science Award (1971) and the International Service in Agronomy Award (1976). In 1986 he received the Distinguished Botanist Award from the Society for Economic Botany. He served as President of the Crop Science Society of America in 1966. His several elections as Fellow include the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1956), the American Society of Agronomy (1962), the American Academy for Arts and Sciences (1975), and the Crop Science Society of America (1985). He was elected to membership in the prestigious US National Academy of Sciences in 1972. Among his important lectureships were the Wilhelmine E. Key Lecturer in Genetics and the Nilsson-Ehle Lecture for 1984 (Sweden).

Bibliography

Publications about Jack R. Harlan

Cook, A. 1984. University of Illinois agronomists get around in search for ancestors of crops. St. Louis Globe-Democrat dated 4 January 1984.

Cunningham, I.S. 1989. Jack R. Harlan: America's Vavilov. Diversity 5(4):34-35.

Hymowitz, T.H. 1990. Dedication: Jack R. Harlan. Plant Breed. Rev. (J. Janick, ed.) 8:1-17.

Publications of Jack R. Harlan1

1 This bibliography was initially published by T.H. Hymowitz (Plant Breeding Reviews 8:1-17, 1990). This version was updated and edited by Dorothea Bedigian in 1998.
Harlan, J.R. 1942. A survey of the genetic variability in the Bromus carinatus complex. PhD Thesis. University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Stebbins, G.L., Jr., H.A. Tobgy and J.R. Harlan. 1944. The cytogenetics of hybrids in Bromus. II. Bromus carinatus and B. arizonicus. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th Series 25:307-322.

Harlan, J.R. 1945. Cleistogamy and chasmogamy in Bromus carinatus Hook and Arn. Am. J. Bot. 32:66-72.

Harlan, J.R. 1945. Grasses of the plains. Southern Seedsman, April.

Harlan, J.R. 1945. Natural breeding structure in the Bromus carinatus complex as determined by population analyses. Am. J. Bot. 32:142-148.

Harlan, J.R. 1946. The development of buffalo grass seed. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 38:135-141.

Harlan, J.R. 1948. Tucson side-oats grama; an improved strain. Oklahoma Crops and Soils. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-319.

Harlan, J.R. 1949. Apomixis in side-oats grama. Am. J. Bot. 36:495-499.

Harlan, J.R. 1950. Adventure on Turkish exploration trip. Farmer Stockman, April.

Harlan, J.R. 1950. Collection of crop plants in Turkey, 1948. Agron. J. 42:258-259.

Harlan, J.R. 1950. Collecting forage plants in Turkey. J. Range Manage. 3:213-219.

Harlan, J.R. 1950. The breeding behaviour of side-oats grama in partially isolated populations. Agron. J. 42:20-24.

Harlan, J.R. 1950. The near east cattleman. Northwest Cattleman, April.

Harlan, J.R. 1950. The wandering gardeners of Yusufeli. Seed World.

Harlan, J.R. 1951. New grasses for old ranges. J. Range Manage. 4:16-18.

Harlan, J.R. 1951. New World crop plants in Asia Minor. Scientific Monthly 72:87-89.

Harlan, J.R. 1951. Anatomy of gene centers. Am. Naturalist 85:97-103.

Harlan, J.R. and R.P. Celarier. 1951. Some Asiatic bluestems in America. Proceedings 49th Annual Convention of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

Chessmore, R. A. and J.R. Harlan. 1952. Smooth brome. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 8. February.

Harlan, J.R. and W.C. Elder. 1952. Establishment of grasses and legumes. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 1. January.

Harlan, J.R., W.C. Elder and R.A. Chessmore. 1952. Seeding rates of grasses and legumes. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 2. January.

Harlan, J.R., W.C. Elder and R.A. Chessmore. 1952. Forage crops recommended in Oklahoma. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 3. January.

Harlan, J.R. 1952. Harvesting and cleaning grass seed in Oklahoma. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 4. January.

Harlan, J.R. and W.C. Elder. 1952. Tall fescue. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 5. February.

Harlan, J.R. 1952. Blue panic. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 6. February.

Harlan, J.R. 1952. Caucasian bluestem. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 7. February.

Harlan, J.R. 1952. King ranch bluestem. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 11. May.

Harlan, J.R. and W.R. Kneebone. 1953. Effect of various methods and rates of nitrogen applications on seed yield of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Agron. J. 45:385-386.

Harlan, J.R., C.E. Denman and W.C. Elder. 1953. Weeping lovegrass. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 16.

Harlan, J.R., L.A. Snyder and R.P. Celarier. 1953. Cytological studies of Southern Great Plains grasses. Proc. 6th International Grassland Congress I:229-232.

Snyder, L.A. and J.R. Harlan. 1953. A cytological survey of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) types from west Texas and eastern New Mexico. Am. J. Bot. 40:702-708.

Harlan, J.R. 1954. Indian grass and switch grass. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 17.

Harlan, J.R. 1954. Range management in Turkey. J. Range Manage. 7:220 222.

Harlan, J.R. 1954. Side-oats grama. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Forage Crops Leaflet No. 18.

Harlan, J.R. 1954. Southland, a new southern bromegrass for Oklahoma and the upper South. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-444.

Harlan, J.R., G.W. Burton and W.C. Elder. 1954. Midland Bermuda grass, a new variety for Oklahoma pastures. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B 416.

Celarier, R.P. and J.R. Harlan. 1955. Studies on Old World bluestems. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. T-58.

Harlan, J.R. 1955. Crops, weeds, and revolution. Scientific Monthly 80:299-303.

Harlan, J.R. 1955. The Great Plains Region (Part 4). Agric. Food Chem. 3:29-31.

Celarier, R.P. and J.R. Harlan. 1956. An Andropogoneae garden in Oklahoma. Taxon 5:183-186.

Harlan, J.R. 1956. Distribution and utilization of natural variability in cultivated plants. Pp. 191-208 in Brookhaven Symposium in Biology No. 9. Genetics in Plant Breeding, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1956. Theory and dynamics of grassland agriculture. D. Van Nostrand, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. 281 pp.

Harlan, J.R., R.M. Ahring and W.R. Kneebone. 1956. Grass seed production under irrigation in Oklahoma. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-481. October.

Celarier, R.P. and J.R. Harlan. 1957. Apomixis in Bothriochloa, Dichanthium and Capillipedium. Phytomorphology 7:93-102.

Harlan, J.R. 1957. Research effect from trends in farm seed usage Great Plains States. Proceedings 2nd Farm Seed Industry Research Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Celarier, R.P. and J.R. Harlan. 1958. The cytogeography of the Bothriochloa ischaemum complex. I. Taxonomy and geographic distribution. J. Linnean Soc. (Bot.) 55:755-760.

Harlan, J.R. 1958. Agronomic trends and problems in the Great Plains - pasture and range crops. Adv. Agron. 10:15-23.

Harlan, J.R. 1958. Blue grama types from west Texas and eastern New Mexico. J. Range Manage. 11:84-87.

Harlan, J.R. 1958. Generalized curves for gain per head and gain per acre in rates of grazing studies. J. Range Manage. 11:140-147.

Harlan, J.R. 1958. Grasslands of Oklahoma. Part I. (Teaching Manual). Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.

Harlan, J.R. and R.M. Ahring. 1958. Caddo switchgrass. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-516.

Harlan, J.R. and R.M. Ahring. 1958. Coronado side-oats grama. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-515.

Harlan, J.R., R.P. Celarier, W.L. Richardson, M.H. Brooks and K.L. Mehra. 1958. Studies on Old World Bluestems II. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. T-72. October.

Harlan, J.R. 1959. Plant exploration and the search for superior germplasm for grasslands. Pp. 3-11 in Grasslands. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, USA.

Mehra, K. L., R.P. Celarier and J.R. Harlan. 1959. Effects of environment on selected morphological characters in the Dichanthium annulatum complex. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 40:10-14.

Harlan, J.R. 1960. Bothriochloa intermedia A. Camus. A study in speciation. Proc. 10th International Genetics Congress 2:112.

Harlan, J.R. 1960. Breeding superior forage plants for the Great Plains. J. Range Manage. 13:86-89.

Harlan, J.R. 1960. Production characteristics of Oklahoma forages: Native range. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-547. February.

Harlan, J.R. and R.M. Ahring. 1960. A suggested method for determining purity of certain chaffy-seeded grasses. Agron. J. 52:223-226.

Harlan, J.R. and W.R. Kneebone. 1960. Woodward sand bluestem: Origin, description and adaptation. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. B-561. August.

Ahring, R.M. and J.R. Harlan. 1961. Germination characteristics of some accessions of Bothriochloa ischaemum Keng. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. T-89.

Ahring, R.M. and J.R. Harlan. 1961. Germination studies on the Dichanthium annulatum complex. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. T-90.

Chheda, H.R., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1961. Aneuploidy in Bothriochloa hybrids. Caryologia 14:205-217.

Dewald, C. L. and J.R. Harlan. 1961. Stigma removal studies in certain accessions of Bothriochloa intermedia and Dichanthium annulatum. Crop Sci. 1:15-17.

Harlan, J.R. 1961. Geographic, origin of plants useful to agriculture. Pp. 3-19 in Germplasm Resources. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington DC, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1961. Range (in Agriculture). Encyclopaedia Britannica 18:972-973.

Harlan, J.R. and H.R. Chheda. 1961. Intergeneric hybrids in Bothriochloa Keng. Pp. 706-710 in Recent Advances in Botany. University of Toronto Press, Canada.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet, W.L. Richardson and H.R. Chheda. 1961. Studies on Old World bluestems. III. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. T-92.

Blaser, R.E., J.R. Harlan and R.M. Love. 1962. Grazing management. Pp. 11-17 in Pasture and Range Research Techniques. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.

Borgaonkar, D.S., J.R. Harlan and J.M.J. de Wet. 1962. A cytogenetical study of hybrids between Dichanthium annulatum and D. fecundum. II. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 42:13-16.

Celarier, R.P, J.M.J. de Wet, D.S. Borgaonkar and J.R. Harlan. 1962. Intergeneric hybrids in the Bothriochloininae. I. Bothriochloa intermedia and Dichanthium annulatum. Cytologia 26:170-175.

Chheda, H.R. and J.R. Harlan. 1962. Fertility in relation to chromosomal abnormalities in some hybrids with Bothriochloa intermedia (R. Br.). A. Camus. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 42:17-22.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1962. Species relationships in Dichanthium III. D. sericeum and its allies. Phyton (Argentina) 18:11-14.

Harlan, J.R. 1962. Bibliography of research in forage crop breeding conducted in the southern states and supported in part by regional research projects S-12 and S-46. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-435.

Harlan, J.R. 1962. Hay and pasture seedings for the Southern Great Plains and the Southwest. Pp. 468-479 in Forages (H.D. Hughes, M.E. Heath and D.S. Metcalfe, eds.). Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Harlan, J.R., H.R. Chheda and W.L. Richardson. 1962. Range of hybridization with Bothriochloa intermedia (R. Br.) A. Camus. Crop Sci. 2:480-483.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and W.L. Richardson. 1962. Improving Old World bluestems for the South: Progress report. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Proc. Series P-383.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet, W.L. Richardson and H.R. Chheda. 1962. Improving Old World bluestems for the South: Progress Report 1961. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-412.

Singh, A.P., J.R. Harlan and J.M.J. de Wet. 1962. Relationship within the Dichanthium annulatum complex. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 42:50-54.

Ahring, R.M., N.L. Dunn, Jr. and J.R. Harlan. 1963. Effect of various treatments in breaking seed dormancy in sand lovegrass. Crop Sci. 3:131-133.

Chheda, H.R. and J.R. Harlan. 1963. A cytogenetical study of intergeneric hybrids between Bothriochloa intermedia and Dichanthium fecundum. Cytologia 27:418-423.

Chheda, H.R. and J.R. Harlan. 1963. Mode of chromosome association in Bothriochloa hybrids. Caryologia 15:461-476.

Harlan, J.R. 1963. Natural introgression between Bothriochloa ischaemum and B. intermedia in West Pakistan. Botanical Gaz 124:294-300.

Harlan, J.R. 1963. Two kinds of gene centers in Bothriochloininae. Am. Naturalist 97:91-98.

Harlan, J.R. and H.R. Chheda. 1963. Studies on the origin of Caucasian bluestem, Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.). C.E. Hubbard. Crop Sci. 3:37-39.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1963. The compilospecies concept. Evolution 17:497-501.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1963. The role of apomixis in the evolution of the Bothriochloa Dichanthium complex. Crop Sci. 3:314-316.

Harlan, J.R., W. L. Richardson and J.M.J. de Wet. 1963. Improving Old World bluestems for the South: Progress report 1962. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. P-458.

Nilan, R.A., C.F. Konzak, J.R. Harlan and R.P. Legault. 1963. The magnitude of the oxygen effect in irradiated barley seeds. Page 94 in Genetics Today (S.J. Geerts, ed.). Proceedings of the XI International Congress of Genetics (abstr.). The Hague, Netherlands.

Chheda, H.R. and J.R. Harlan. 1964. Chromosome evolution and genome building in Bothriochloiniae. Nigerian Agric. J. 1:18-21.

Harlan, J.R. 1964. Quality: Dry range and humid pasture. Joint Symposium of the Am. Grassland Council and Am. Society of Range Management. American Grassland Council Publication.

Harlan, J.R. 1964. Review: Pasture economy and meadow cultivation, by I.V. Larin. Moscow (A. Lapid, trans.). 1962. Office of Technical Services, US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. in J. Range Manage. 17:46-47.

Harlan, J.R. 1964. Plant scientists and what they do. Franklin Watts, NY. 181 pp.

Harlan, J.R., M.H. Brooks, D.S. Borgaonkar and J.M.J. de Wet. 1964. The nature and inheritance of apomixis in Bothriochloa and Dichanthium. Botanical Gaz. 125:41-46.

Harlan, J.R., W. L. Richardson and J.M.J. de Wet. 1964. Improving Old World bluestems for the South: Progress report 1963. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. P-450.

Harlan, J.R. 1965. The possible role of weed races in the evolution of cultivated plants. Euphytica 14:173-176.

Harlan, J.R. 1965. The use of apomixis in the improvement of tropical and subtropical grasses. Proceedings of the International Grassland Congress Brazil 1964:1:191-193.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1965. Some thoughts about weeds. Econ. Bot. 19:16-24.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and W.L. Richardson. 1966. Biosystematics of the Bothriochloininae (Andropogoneae, Gramineae). Oklahoma State University Agric. Exp. Sta. P-532.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan, J.P. Huckabay and M.H. Lu. 1966. Biosystematics of Sorghum, a report of progress. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Proc. Series P-539.

de Wet, J.M.J and J.R. Harlan. 1966. Morphology of the compilospecies Bothriochloa intermedia. Am. J. Bot. 53:94-98.

Harlan, J.R. 1966. Plant introduction and biosystematics. Pp. 55-83. in Plant Breeding (K.J. Frey, ed.). Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Harlan, J.R. and D. Zohary. 1966. Distribution of wild wheats and barley. Science 153:1074-1080.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet, W.L. Richardson, WW. Huffine, J. Deakin, S.P. Sen Gupta and A. Carpena. 1966. Biosystematics of the genus Cynodon (Gramineae). Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Proc. Series P-537.

Harlan, J.R. 1967. A wild wheat harvest in Turkey. Archaeology 20:197-201.

Harlan, J.R. 1967. Biosystematics of cultivated plants. Pp. 183-198 in Reconstructing African Culture History (C. Gabel and N. R. Bennett, eds.). Boston University Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1968. Taxonomy of Dichanthium section Dichanthium (Gramineae). Bol. Soc. Argentina de Botanica 12:206-227.

Harlan, J.R. 1968. On the origin of barley. Pp. 9-31 in Barley: Origin, Botany, Culture, Winter-hardiness, Genetics, Utilization, Pests (G.A. Wiebe, ed.). Agriculture Handbook No. 338 ARS/USDA, Washington, DC, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1969. Ethiopia: A center of diversity. Econ. Bot. 23:309-314.

Harlan, J.R. 1969. Evolutionary dynamics of plant domestication. Jpn. J. Genet. 44:337-343 (Supplement 1).

Harlan, J.R. 1969. Review: Plants and archaeology, by G. W. Dimbleby. 1967. Humanities Press, NY. in Archaeology 22:76-77.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1969. Sources of variation in Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers. Crop Sci. 9:774-778.

Harlan, J.R. and J. Pasquerleau. 1969. D'ecrue agriculture in Mali. Econ. Bot. 23:70-74.

Harlan, J.R. and J. Pasquerleau. 1969. L'agriculture de d'ecrue in Mali dans la zone du delta central du Niger. Bull, de l'Economie Rurale, Bamako, Mali.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and W.L. Richardson. 1969. Hybridization studies with Cynodon from East Africa and Malagasy. Am. J. Bot. 56:944-950.

Zohary, D., J.R. Harlan and A. Vardi. 1969. The wild diploid progenitors of wheat and their breeding value. Euphytica 18:58-65.

Harlan, J.R. 1970. Cynodon species and their value for grazing and hay. Herbage Abstr. 40:233-239.

Harlan, J.R. 1970. Evolution of cultivated plants. Pp. 19-32 in Genetic Resources in Plants - Their Exploration and Conservation (O.H. Frankel and E. Bennett, eds.). Aldine, Chicago, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1970. Review: The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals (P.J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby, eds). 1969. Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago, IL, USA. in Social Biol. 17:1.

Harlan, J.R. 1970. World survey of genetic resources of sorghum. Plant Introduction Newsl. (FAO) Rome 23:19-20.

Clayton, W.D. and J.R. Harlan. 1970. The genus Cynodon L. C. Rich in tropical Africa. Kew Bull. RBG, London 24:185-189.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1970. Apomixis, polyploidy and speciation in Dichanthium. Evolution 24:270-277.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1970. Biosystematics of Cynodon L. C. Rich (Gramineae). Taxon 19:565-569.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1970. Bothriochloa intermedia. A taxonomic dilemma. Taxon 19:339-340.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and E.G. Price. 1970. Origin of variability in the Spontanea complex of Sorghum bicolor. Am. J. Bot. 57:704-707.

de Wet, J.M.J., R.J. Lambert, J.R. Harlan and S.M. Naik. 1970. Stable triploid hybrids among Zea-Tripsacum-Zea backcross populations. Caryologia 23:183-187.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and K.M. Rawal. 1970. Geographic distribution of the species of Cynodon L. C. Rich (Gramineae). E. Afr. Agric. Forestry J. 36:220-226.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and K.M. Rawal. 1970. Origin and distribution of the Seleucidus race of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. van dactylon (Gramineae). Euphytica 19:457-461.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet, K.M. Rawal, M.R. Felder and W.L. Richardson. 1970. Cytogenetic studies in Cynodon L. C. Rich (Gramineae). Crop Sci. 10:288-291.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet, S. M. Naik and R.J. Lambert. 1970. Chromosome pairing within genomes in maize-Tripsacum hybrids. Science 167:1247-1248.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet, W. W. Huffine and J.R. Deakin. 1970. A guide to the species of Cynodon (Gramineae). Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-673.

Rawal, K.M. and J.R. Harlan. 1970. The evolution of growth habit in Cynodon L. C. Rich. (Gramineae). Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 64:110-118.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1971. South African species of Cynodon (Gramineae). J. S. Afr. Bot. 37:53-56.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1971. The origin and domestication of Sorghum bicolor. Econ. Bot. 25:128-135.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and C.A. Grant. 1971. Origin and evolution of teosinte (Zea mexicana) (Schrad.) Kuntze. Euphytica 20:255-265.

Harlan, J.R. 1971. Agricultural origins: Centers and noncenters. Science 174:468-474.

Harlan, J.R. 1971. On the origin of barley: A second look. Pp. 45-50 in Barley Genetics II (R.A. Nilan, ed.). Proceedings of the 2nd International Barley Genetics Symposium, Washington State Univ. Press, Pullman.

Harlan, J.R. and E. James. 1971. Crop Research and Introduction Center, Izmir, Turkey: Report of Review Mission. FAO, Rome AGP: SF/TUR 8.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1971. Toward a rational classification of cultivated plants. Taxon 20:509-517.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1972. Chromosome pairing and phylogenetic affinities. Taxon 21:67-70.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1972. Origin of maize: the tripartite hypothesis. Euphytica 21:271-279.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and B. Kurmarohita. 1972. Origin and evolution of guinea sorghums. E. Afr. Agric. Forestry J. 37:114-119.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and E.G. Price. 1972. Evolutionary dynamics of sorghum domestication. Wenner Gren Foundation for Anthropology Research Symposium No. 56.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan, RJ. Lambert and L. M. Engle. 1972. Introgression from Tripsacum into Zea and the origin of maize. Caryologia 25:25-31.

Harlan, J.R. 1972. A new classification of cultivated sorghum. Pp. 512-516 in Sorghum in the Seventies (N.G.P. Rao and L.R. House, eds.). Oxford & IBH, New Delhi, India.

Harlan, J.R. 1972. Breeding success brings a peril. Crops and Soils 72:5-6.

Harlan, J.R. 1972. Crops that extend the range of agricultural settlement. Pp. 239-243 in Man, Settlement and Urbanism (P.J. Ucko, R. Tringham and G.W. Dimbleby, eds.). Duckworth, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1972. Genetic conservation of plants that feed the world. Environ. J. 46:15-17.

Harlan, J.R. 1972. Genetics of disaster. J. Environ. Qual. 1:212-215.

Harlan, J.R. 1972. Les origines de l'Agriculture. La Recherche 3:1035-1043.

Harlan, J.R. 1972. Space and time in the genetic variation of crops. Proc. Am. Assoc. Geographers 4:126.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1972. A simplified classification of cultivated sorghum. Crop Sci. 12:172-176.

Taliaferro, C.M., J.R. Harlan and W.L. Richardson. 1972. Plains bluestem. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. B-699.

de Wet, J.M.J, J.R. Harlan, L.M. Engle and C.A. Grant. 1973. Cytology of backcross offspring derived from a maize-Tripsacum hybrid. Crop Sci. 13:690-694.

Harlan, J.R. 1973. Barley genetics and breeding. E. Afr. Agric. Forestry J. Spec. Issue No. 6, 39:21.

Harlan, J.R. 1973. Genetic resources of some major field crops in Africa. Pp. 45-64 in Survey of Crop Genetic Resources in Their Centres of Diversity. FAO-IBP, Rome, Italy.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1973. On the quality of evidence for origin and dispersal of cultivated plants. Curr. Anthropol. 14:51-62.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and E.G. Price. 1973. Comparative evolution of cereals. Evolution 27:311-325.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1974. Tripsacum-maize interaction: A novel genetic system. Genetics 78:493-502.

Engle, L.M., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1974. Chromosomal variation among offspring of hybrid derivativies with 20 Zea and 36 Tripsacum chromosomes. Caryologia 27:193-209.

Harlan, J.R. 1974. Sorghum and African millets. Page 40 in Handbook of Plant Introduction in Tropical Crops (J. Leon, ed.). FAO Agriculture Studies No. 93. Rome.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1974. Sympatric evolution in sorghum. Genetics 78:473-474.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1975. Weeds and domesticates: Evolution in the manmade habitat. Econ. Bot. 29:99-107.

Harlan, J.R. 1975. Crops and Man. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. 295 p.

Harlan, J.R. 1975. Geographic patterns of variation in some cultivated plants. J. Heredity 66:182-191.

Harlan, J.R. 1975. New uses for old herbals. Non Solus 2:12-20.

Harlan, J.R. 1975. Our vanishing genetic resources. Science 188:618-621.

Harlan, J.R. 1975. Practical problems in exploration: Seed crops. Pp. 111-115 in Crop Genetic Resources for Today and Tomorrow (O.H. Frankel and J.G. Hawkes, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Harlan, J.R. and 11 others. 1975. Plant studies in the People's Republic of China: A trip report of the American Plant Studies Delegation. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC, USA. 205 pp.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1975. On Ö. Winge and a prayer: The Origins of Polyploidy. Botan. Rev. 41:361-390.

Rawal, K. and J.R. Harlan. 1975. Cytogenetic analysis of wild emmer populations from Turkey and Israel. Euphytica 24:407-411.

Stemler, A.B.L., J.R. Harlan and J.M.J. de Wet. 1975. Caudatum sorghums and speakers of Chari-Nile languages in Africa. J. Afr. Hist. 16:161-183.

Stemler, A.B.L., J.R. Harlan and J.M.J. de Wet. 1975. Evolutionary history of cultivated sorghums (Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench) of Ethiopia. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club 102:325-333.

Voight, P.W., W.R. Kneebone, J.R. Harlan and R.M. Ahring. 1975. Registration of Texoka buffalograss. Crop Sci. 15:885.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and A.B.L. Stemler, eds. 1976. The Origins of African Plant Domestication. Mouton Press, The Hague. 498 pp.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1976. Cytogenetic evidence for the origin of teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana (Schrad.) Iltes). Euphytica 25:447-455.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Gray and J.R. Harlan. 1976. Systematics of Tripsacum (Gramineae). Phytologia 33:203-227.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and E.G. Price. 1976. Variability in Sorghum bicolor. Pp. 453-464 in Origins of African Plant Domestication (J.R. Harlan, J.M.J. de Wet and A.B.L. Stemler, eds.). Mouton Press, The Hague, Netherlands.

de Wet, J.M.J., S.C. Gupta, J.R. Harlan and C.O. Grassl. 1976. Cytogenetics of introgression from Saccharum into Sorghum. Crop Sci. 16:568-572.

Engle, L.M., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1976. Cytology of plants derived from 20 Zea and 18 Tripsacum chromosome hybrids backcrossed with maize. Philipp. J. Crop Sci. 1:26-31.

Gupta, S.C., J.R. Harlan, J.M.J. de Wet and C.O. Grassl. 1976. Cytology of backcross four individuals derived from a Saccharum-Sorghum hybrid. Caryologia 29:351-359.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. Barley. Pp. 93-98 in Evolution of Crop Plants (N.W. Simmonds, ed.). Longman Press, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. Diseases as a factor in plant evolution. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 14:31-51.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. Genetic resources in wild relatives of crops. Crop Sci. 16:329-333.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. Plant and animal distribution in relation to domestication. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 275:13-25.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. Response: Meyer medal presentation. J. Heredity 67:140.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. Review: Plants, man and the land in the Vilcanota Valley of Peru, by D.W. Gade. 1975 in J. Agron. 5:87. W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. The plants and animals that nourish man. Scientific Am. 235:88-97.

Harlan, J.R. 1976. Tropical and sub-tropical grasses. Pp. 142-144 in Evolution of Crop Plants (N.W. Simmonds, ed.). Longman Press, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. and A.B.L. Stemler. 1976. The races of sorghum in Africa. Pp. 465-478 in Origins of African Plant Domestication (J.R. Harlan, J.M.J. de Wet and A.B.L. Stemler, eds.). Mouton Press, The Hague, Netherlands.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and A.B.L. Stemler. 1976. Plant domestication and indigenous African agriculture. Pp. 3-19 in Origins of African Plant Domestication (J.R. Harlan, J.M.J. de Wet and A.B.L. Stemler, eds.). Mouton Press, The Hague, Netherlands.

Stemler, A.B.L., F.I. Collins, J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1976. Variation in levels of lipid components and protein in ecogeographic races of Sorghum bicolor. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 4:43-45.

Brunken, J.M., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1977. The morphology and domestication of pearl millet. Econ. Bot. 31:163-174.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1977. Pathways of genetic transfer from Tripsacum to Zea mays. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 74:3494-3497.

Harlan, J.R. 1977. Breeding plants for resistance to climatic stress. Pp. 119-145 in Proceedings of the Climate-Technology Seminar. College of Agriculture, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1977. Gene centers and gene utilization in American agriculture. Environ. Rev. 1:26-42.

Harlan, J.R. 1977. How green can a revolution be? Pp. 105-110 in Crop Resources (D.S. Seigler, ed.). Academic Press, New York, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1977. Review: Farming in prehistory: from hunter-gatherer to food producer, by B. Bender. 1975. J. Baker, London, in Am. Anthropol. 79:174-175.

Harlan, J.R. 1977. Sources of genetic defense. Pp. 345-356 in The Genetic Basis of Epidemics in Agriculture (P.R. Day, ed.). Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 287:400.

Harlan, J.R. 1977. The origins of Old World cereal agriculture. Pp. 357-383 in The Origins of Agriculture (C.A. Reed, ed.). Mouton, The Hague, Netherlands.

Stalker, H.T., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1977. Cytology and morphology of maize-Tripsacum introgression. Crop Sci. 17:745-748.

Stalker, H.T., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1977. Observations on introgression of Tripsacum into maize. Am. J. Bot. 64:1162-1169.

Stemler, A.B.L., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1977. The sorghums of Ethiopia. Econ. Bot. 31:446-460.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1978. Tripsacum and the origin of maize. Pp. 129-141 in Maize Breeding and Genetics (D.B. Walden, ed.). Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and A.V. Randrianasolo. 1978. Morphology of tripsacoid maize (Zea mays L.). Am. J. Bot. 65:741-747.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan, H.T. Stalker and A.V. Randrianasolo. 1978. The origin of tripsacoid maize (Zea mays L.). Evolution 32:233-244.

Gupta, S.C., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1978. Morphology of Saccharum-Sorghum hybrid derivatives. Am. J. Bot. 65:936-942.

Gupta, S.C., J.R. Harlan and J.M.J. de Wet. 1978. Cytology and morphology of a tetraploid Sorghum population recovered from a Saccharum-Sorghum hybrid. Crop Sci. 18:879-883.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1978. Possible uses of Tripsacum contaminated maize. Agron. Abstr. p. 53.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and C.A. Newell. 1978. Apomixis and pseudoapomixis in Tripsacum. Abstracts, 14th International Congress of Genetics, Moscow, Part II. p.166.

Stalker, H.T., J.R. Harlan and J.M.J. de Wet. 1978. Genetics of maize-Tripsacum introgression. Caryologia 31:271-282.

Hilu, K. W., J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1979. Archaeobotanical studies of Eleusine coracana ssp. coracana (finger millet). Am. J. Bot. 66:330-333.

Harlan, J.R. 1980. Crop monoculture and the future of American agriculture. Pp. 225-250 in The Future of American Agriculture as Strategic Resource (S.S. Batie and R.G. Healy, eds.). The Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1980. Origins of agriculture and crop evolution. Pp. 1-8 in Biology and Breeding for Resistance to Arthropods and Pathogens in Agricultural Plants (M.K. Harris, ed.). Texas Agricultural Experment Station, College Station, Texas, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1980. Plant breeding and genetics. Pp. 295-312 in Science in Contemporary China (L.A. Orleans, ed.). Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1980. Studies on the origin and evolution of plants since N. I. Vavilov. Pp. 35-38 in Well-being of Mankind and Genetics. Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Genetics Volume 1, Book 1. MIR Publications, Moscow, USSR.

Harlan, J.R. and K.J. Starks. 1980. Germplasm resources and needs. Pp. 253-274 in Breeding Plants Resistant to Insects (F.G. Maxwell and PR. Jennings, eds.). John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.

Harlan, J.R., J.M.J. de Wet and C. A. Newell. 1980. Apomiksis y pseudoapo-miksis y Tripsakym. Pp. 88-89 in Indytsirovannii Myto-genez i Apomiksis Izdatelstvo (D.F. Petrov, ed.). «Nauka» Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Novosibirsk, USSR.

Bedigian, D. and J.R. Harlan. 1981. Agriculture in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan. Botanical Society of America, Miscellaneous Series Publication 160:62.

de Wet, J.M.J. and J.R. Harlan. 1981. Maize in art and religion. In Proceedings of the 4th South African Maize Breeding Symposium (H.V. Gevers and J.G. duMessis, eds.). Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Technical Communication 172:64-68.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. Who's in charge here? Can. J. Fisheries Aquat. Sci. 38:1459-1463.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. Crop evolution. School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. 138 pp.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. Ecological settings for the emergence of agriculture. Pp. 3-21 in Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation (J.M. Thresh, ed.). Pitman Books, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. Natural resources of the southern Ghor. In The Southeastern Dead Sea Valley Expedition: An interim report of the 1977 season (W.E. Rast and R.T. Schamb, eds.). Ann. Am. School of Oriental Res. 46:155-164.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. The early history of wheat: Earliest traces to the sack of Rome. Pp. 1-19 in Wheat Science Today and Tomorrow (L.T. Evans and W.J. Peacock, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. The origins of indigenous African Agriculture. Pp. 623-658 in Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 1: From earliest times to ca 500 BC (J.D. Clark, ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. Hans Helbaek, Hon. D.Sc., Hon. D. Phil., F.M. L.S., Hon. F.S.A. 1907-1981. J. Archaeol. Sci. 8:313.

Harlan, J.R. 1981. Evaluation of wild relatives of crop plants. Page 17 in Report of the FAO/UNEP/IBPGR. International Conference on Crop Genetic Resources FAO/Rome, Italy.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and D.E. Brink. 1982. Systematics of Tripsacum dactyloides (Gramineae). Am. J. Bot. 69:1251-1257.

Harlan, J.R. 1982. Human interference with grass systematics. Pp. 37-50 in Grasses and Grasslands: Systematics and Ecology (J.R. Estes, R.J. Tyrl and J.N. Brunken, eds.). Univ. Of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1982. The garden of the Lord: A plausible reconstruction of natural resources of Southern Jordan in early bronze age. Paleorient 8/1:71-78.

Harlan, J.R. 1982. Directing the accelerated evolution of crop plants Pp. 51-69 in Strategies of Plant Reproduction (W.J. Meudt, ed.). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC) Symposia in Agricultural Research VI, Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1982. The use of genetic traits from wild populations. Pp. 136-138 in Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1982. Relationships between weeds and crops. Pp. 91-96 in Biology and Ecology of Weeds (W. Holzner and M. Numata, eds.). W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

Bedigian, D. and J.R. Harlan. 1983. Nuba agriculture and ethnobotany, with particular reference to sesame and sorghum. Econ. Bot. 37:384-395.

de Wet, J.M.J., G.B. Fletcher, K.W. Hilu and J.R. Harlan. 1983. Origin of Tripsacum andersonii (Gramineae) Am. J. Bot. 70:706-711.

Harlan, J. R. 1983. Use of genetic resources for improvement of forage species. Pp. 29-34 in Proc. XIV International Grassland Congress (J.A. Smith and W.V. Hays, eds.), Lexington, Kentucky, June 15-24, 1981. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1983. From wilderness to farm: The odyssey of plant domestication. Illinois Res. 25:3-5.

Harlan, J.R. 1983. The scope for collection and improvement of forage plants. Pp. 4-14 in Genetic Resources of Forage Plants (J.G. McIvor and R.A. Bray, eds.). CSIRO, East Melbourne, Australia.

Harlan, J.R. 1983. Some merging plant populations. Pp. 267-276 in Genetics and Conservation (C.M. Schonewald Cox, S.M. Chambers, B. MacBryde and W.L. Thomas, eds.). The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Menlo Park, California, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1983. Bread. Pp. 364-365 in Dictionary of the Middle Ages (J.R. Strayer, ed.). Vol. 2. Charles Scribners Sons, New York, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1983. The utility of plant exploration. In Twentieth Century Agricultural Science: Discovery, Use, Preservation (A. Fusione and D.J. Fusione, eds.). J. Nat. Agric. Library Assoc. New Series 8:199-208.

Harlan, J.R. 1983. Review: Agricultural plants, by R.H.M. Langer and G.D. Hill. 1982. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York. In Q. Rev. Biol. 58:258.

Hymowitz, T. and J.R. Harlan. 1983. Introduction of soybean to North America by Samuel Bowen in 1765. Econ. Bot. 37:371-379.

Harlan, J.R. 1984. Negative trends in crop evolution. Pp. 171-194 in Conservation and Utilization of Exotic Germplasm to Improve Varieties (Gordon McCleary, ed.). Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1984. Evaluation of wild relatives of crop plants. Pp. 212-222 in Crop Genetic Resources: Conservation and Evaluation (J.H.W. Holden and J.T. Williams, eds.). George Alien & Unwin, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1984. Gene centers and gene utilization in American agriculture. Pp. 111-129 in Plant Genetic Resources: A Conservation Imperative (C.W. Yeatman, D. Kafton and G. Wilkes, eds.). AAAS Selected Symposium 87. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Bedigian, D., D.S. Siegler and J.R. Harlan. 1985. Sesamin, sesamolin and the origin of sesame. Biochem. Syst. Ecol 13:133-139.

de Wet, J.M.J., R.R. Bergquist, J.R. Harlan, D.E. Brink, C.E. Cohen, C.A. Newell and A.E. de Wet. 1985. Exogenous gene transfer in maize (Zea mays) using DNA-treated pollen. Pp. 197-209 in The Experimental Manipulation of Ovule Tissues (G.P. Chapman, S.H. Mantell and R.W. Daniels, eds.). Longman, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1985. Dedication. Glenn W. Burton: A maker of green pastures. Plant Breed. Rev. 3:1-19.

Harlan, J.R. 1985. Review: Frank N. Meyer: Plant Hunter in Asia, by I.S. Cunningham. 1984. Iowa State University Press, Ames. In Agric. Hist. 59:359-360.

Harlan, J.R. 1985. The early bronze age environment of the Southern Ghor and Moab plateau. Pp. 133-137 in Oxford Conference on Archaeology of Jordan (A. Hadidi, ed.). Vol. 2., Ch. 4. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Lin, Liang-Shiou, Tuan-hua D.Ho and J.R. Harlan. 1985. Rapid amplification and fixation of new restriction sites in the ribosomal DNA repeats in the derivatives of a cross between maize and Tripsacum dactyloides. Develop. Genet. 6:101-112.

Bedigian, D. and J.R. Harlan. 1986. Evidence for cultivation of sesame in the ancient world. Econ. Bot. 40:137-154.

Bedigian, D., C.A. Smyth and J.R. Harlan. 1986. Patterns of morphological variation in sesame. Econ. Bot. 40:353-365.

de Wet, J.M.J., J.R. Harlan and D.E. Brink. 1986. Reality of infraspecific units in domesticated cereals. Pp. 211-222 in Infraspecific Classification in Wild and Cultivated Plants (B.T. Styles, ed.). Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1986. Lettuce and the sycamore: sex and romance in ancient Egypt. Econ. Bot. 40:4-15.

Harlan, J.R. 1986. Plant domestication: diffuse origins and diffusion. Pp. 21-34 in The Origin and Domestication of Cultivated Plants (C. Barigozzi, ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Harlan, J.R. and J.M.J. de Wet. 1986. Problems in merging populations and counterfeit hybrids. Pp. 71-76 in Infraspecific Classification of Wild and Cultivated Plants (B.T. Styles, ed.). Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1987. Les plantes cultivées et l'homme (J. Belliard and B. Fraleigh, trans.). Agence de cooperation culturelle et techniques conseil international de la langue francais. Presses Universitaires de France. Paris. (Trans. of Crops and Man) p. 414.

Dewald, C.L., B.L. Burson, J.M.J. de Wet and J.R. Harlan. 1987. Morphology, inheritance and evolutionary significance of sex reversal in Tripsacum dactyloides (Poaceae). Am. J. Bot. 74:1055-1059.

Harlan, J.R. 1988. Seeds and sovereignty: an epilogue. Pp. 356-362 in Seeds and Sovereignty: The Use and Control of Plant Generic Resources (J. Kloppenburg, ed.). Duke University Press, Durham, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1989. Domestication of plants. In Plants and Society (M.S. Swaminathan and S.L. Kochhar, eds.). Macmillan, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1989. The tropical African cereals. Pp. 335-343 in Foraging and Farming: the Evolution of Plant Exploitation (D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman, eds.). Unwin Hyman, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1989. Wild grass-seed harvesting in the Sahara and sub-Sahara of Africa. Pp. 79-98 in Foraging and Farming: the Evolution of Plant Exploitation (D.R. Harris and G.C. Hillman, eds.). Unwin Hyman, London, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1989. Wild grass seeds as food sources in the Sahara and sub-Sahara. Sahara 2:69-74.

Harlan, J.R. 1990. Recent studies in plant diversity. In N.I. Vavilov Centenary Symposium Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (J.G. Hawkes and D.R. Harris, eds.). 39(1): Prepared for 100th anniversary of the birth of N.I. Vavilov, Nov. 25, 1987 in Moscow and Nov. 26-29 in Leningrad, USSR.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Agricultural origins and crop domestication in the Mediterranean region. Diversity 11(1/2):14-16.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. The all-America ice cream parlor. Page 9 in Etnobotanica-92 (Abstracts). Libro de Resumenes, Jardin Botanico e Cordoba, Cordoba, Espana.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Composite cross II of barley. Pp. xxv-xxvii in Complexes d'espèces, flux de gènes et ressources génétiques des plantes. Actes du colloque international, Paris 8-10 Janvier 1992, organisé en hommage a Jean Pernès. Publications du Bureau des Ressources Génétiques, Paris, France.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Crops and Man. 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Indigenous African agriculture. Pp. 59-70 in The Origins of Agriculture: an International Perspective (C. W. Cowan and P.J. Watson, eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1992. Wild grass seed harvesting and implications for domestication. Pp. 21-28 in Prehistoire de l'Agriculture. Nouvelles approaches experimentales de ethnographiques (P.C. Anderson, ed.). Monographie du Centre de Recherches Archeologiques no. 6. CNRS, Paris, France.

Harlan, J.R. 1993. Genetic resources in Africa. p.64-65. in New Crops (J. Janick and J.E. Simon, eds.). Wiley, New York.

Harlan, J.R. 1994. Plant domestication: an overview. Pp. 377-388 in History of Humanity. Volume 1. Prehistory and the Beginnings of Civilization (SJ. De Laet, ed.). UNESCO, Paris; Routledge, London and New York.

Harlan, J.R. 1994. Domesticated animals. Pp. 13-16, Domestication. Pp. 145-146, Domesticated Plants. Pp. 538-540 in Encyclopedia of the Environment (R.A. Eblen and W.R. Eblen, eds.). Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Harlan, J.R. 1994. Review: The origins of agriculture and settled life, by R.S. McNeish. 1992. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, in J. Interdisc. Hist. 24:517-518.

Harlan, J.R. 1994. Review: Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants, by N.I. Vavilov (V.F. Dorofeyev, ed. D. Love, trans.) 1992. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. in Am. Scientist 82:285-286.

Harlan, J.R. 1995. The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Harlan, J.R. 1997. Distributions of agricultural origins: A global perspective. P. 43. in The Origins of Agriculture and the Domestication of Crop Plants in the Near East - The Harlan Symposium. Book of Abstracts. (A.B. Damania and J. Valkoun, eds.). ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.


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