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Index

Page numbers in bold face refer to figures, page numbers in italics refer to tables.

A

Abdul Hosein [see also Tepe Abdul Hosein] 27, 28, 68, 85, 105, 109

Abu Hureyra 27, 28, 30-32, 70, 84, 103, 104-5, 106, 107, 109, 147, 308-9

accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 66

Acer hyrcanum subsp. tauricolum 219

Adonis sp. 26

Aegean Islands/Sea 53, 60

Aegilops sp. 26, 27, 42, 55, 171, 176, 284, 293, 304, 314

Ae. caudatai 55
Ae. columnaris 55
Ae. crassa 55, 302
Ae. cylindrica 55
Ae. kotschyi 55
Ae. laurentii 55
Ae. mutica 55
Ae. ovata 55
Ae. searsii 297, 298
Ae. sharonensis 55
Ae. speltoides 55, 236, 297, 298, 300-1
Ae. squarrosa 56
Ae. tauschii 235, 236, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242-3, 245, 246, 247-8, 284, 297, 298, 301
Ae. triaristata 55
Ae. triuncialis 55, 304
Ae. umbellulata 55
Afghanistan 11, 54, 55, 56, 62, 193, 211, 236, 239, 246

AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) 204, 308

Africa 5, 54, 59, 225, 228, 253, 286, 287, 303

agrarian sites 102

agricultural package 39

Agricultural Revolution 65

agriculture [see domestication (plants) and crop cultivation]

beginnings of 1, 25, 39, 102, 298, 307
cereal-based 123
rain-fed 78, 179, 182
spread of 89
agropastoralism 67, 69, 71, 74, 78-9

Agropyron sp. 282, 314

Ain Dara 147

Ain Diwar 301

Ain el Arab 146, 149

Ain Ghazal 27, 28, 68, 104, 108, 109, 147

Air Mountains 288

Aksaray 218

Alaverdy region 282

Aleppo (city, province) 56, 179, 300, 305, 312

alfalfa [see Medicago sativa]

Algeria 195

Ali Kosh 27, 28, 75, 68, 83, 85, 87, 105, 108, 109, 311

Ali Tappeh 72, 76

allele frequency 251, 253, 255

Allium sp. 51

A. ampeloprasum 51
A. ascalonicum 51
A. cepa 51
A. deserti-syriaci 51
A. kurrat 51
A. porrum 51
A. sativum 51
allozymes 212-3, 213, 215, 264

almond [see also Prunus amygdalus] 27, 30, 84, 86-8, 96, 122, 178, 184

amaranth 198, 260

Amaranthus retroflexus 223

Amblyopyrum muticum 314

Amuq Judaideh 147

Amygdalus sp. 30, 171, 174, 176, 184, 219

A. communis [see Prunus amygdalus]
A. fenzliana 61
A. persica 61
Anatolia 30, 31, 35, 55, 61, 66, 68, 69-71, 84, 93-4, 96, 103, 146, 218, 222, 248, 294, 309

Anchusa undulata subsp. hybrida 223

Ancient Mediterranean 12, 16

Andes 201, 253

Andrachne telephioides 43

Androsace maxima 43

Angola/Namibia 288

anise [see Pimpinella anisum]

Anisociadium orientale 43

Anthemis wettsteiniana 43

Anti-Lebanon Mountains 122, 312

apple [see Malus]

apricot [see also Prunus armeniaca] 52

Arabia 59-60, 98-99, 225, 286-287

Arachis sp. 5, 7

Ararat Valley 56, 283

Araks River 56, 97

archaeobotanical evidence 25, 33, 280

archaeobotanical techniques [see also Part 3] 41

Argentina 198, 206-7, 303

Argishtikhinly 282

Arizona 303

Armenia 53, 55-6, 60, 62, 94, 96-7, 99, 211, 248, 280-1, 314

Arnebia decumbens 43

Artemisia sp. 86, 161, 165, 166-9, 171, 177

A. herba-alba 43
artichoke [see Cynara scolymus]

Ashtarak region 283

Asia 5, 6, 225, 228, 229, 235, 246

Asia Minor 11, 54-5, 58-61

Asiab 84, 88

Asiatic mouflon (Ovis orientalis) 75

Asikli Höyük 27, 28, 31, 105, 109, 147

Asperula arvensis 42

Astragalus sp. 26, 42, 184

Aswad (Tell) 27, 28, 31-2, 67, 68, 70, 124

‘Atij [see also Tell ‘Atij] 42-44

Atlas Mountains 55, 225, 230

Atrek River 78

Atriplex sp. 165

A. leucoclada 43
Australia 53, 58, 286

Austria 56

Avena sp. 26, 304

A. byzanthina 56
A. clauda 56
A. damascena 56
A. longiglumis 56
A. moroccana 56
A. sativa 56
A. sterilis 56
A. strigosa 56
Azerbaijan 53, 55, 60-1, 237, 248, 298

Azraq 31, 105, 109

B

Babylonian 94, 96, 99

Balkans 55, 58, 60, 270, 309

Balochistan 59

Bami 72

Bangladesh 195

Barbarea plantaginea 223

barley [see also Hordeum vulgare] 7, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 39, 41-3, 73, 97, 182, 210

bottle-shaped 283-284

six-row 27, 55-6, 70, 247, 224, 294, 311
two-row 26, 27, 67, 70, 87, 147, 153, 214, 294, 311
Basra 52

Bastam 71

batha 127, 130

bean, common [see also Phaseolus] 219

bedstraw [see also Gallium] 108

Beidha 27, 28, 30, 68, 104, 108, 109, 142, 147

Beka’a Valley 300

Belikh River 122

Bellevalia sp. 42

Berula erecta 219, 223

Beta sp. 12, 53

B. corolliflora 53
B. intermedia 53
B. lomatogona 53
B. macrorrhiza 53, 221, 223
B. trigyna 53
B. vulgaris 16, 53
bezoar (Apra aegagrus) 75

bitumen 141, 154

black oat [see Avena strigosa]

blackthorn (sloe) [see Prunus spinosa]

Bloudan 305

Bolivia 202

Bölling-Alleröd interstadial 83, 103

Bolshoi Balkhan Mountains 76

Bouqras (Tell) 32, 39, 105, 108, 109

Braidwood, Robert 39, 65

Brassica sp. 1, 12

B. oleracea 54
B. oleracea convar. capitata 54
B. oleracea convar. oleracea 54
B. oleracea var. botrytis 54
bread wheat [see Triticum aestivum]

Bromus sp. 26, 171, 176, 282

B. arvensis 171
Bronze Age 56, 146, 154-6, 155, 170, 191, 224, 281

buckwheat [see also Fagopyrum esculentum] 6

Bulgaria 153

Bupleurum sp. 26, 171

B. lancifolium 43
bushlands 289

Byzantine 303

C

cabbage [see Brassica oleracea]

Cafer Höyük 27, 28, 31, 32, 68, 105, 108, 109, 147

Camelina sp. 26

C. hispida 223
Campanula cymbalaria 223

Canaanean blades 154, 155

Can Hassan 27, 28, 68, 105, 109

Canada 3

Cannabis sativa 59

canteloupe [see Cucumis melo]

Cape Verde Islands 288

caprines [see goats and domestication (animals)]

Capsella bursa-pastoris 223

carbon isotope discrimination 178-185, 181, 274, 277

carrot [see Daucus carota]

Carthamus sp. 39, 44, 46, 52

C. baeticus 53
C. curdicus 53
C. divaricatus 53
C. flavescens 44, 52-3
C. gypsicolus 53
C. leucocaulos 53
C. oxyacanthus 44, 53
C. palaestinus 44, 52
C. tenuis 44
C. tinctorius 44, 45, 47
C. turkestanicus 53
Caspian Sea 53, 56, 58-60, 76, 284, 298

Cassava [see Manihot]

Castanea sativa 55

castor [see also Ricinus communis] 97

Caucalis daucoides 282

Caucasia/Caucasus 17, 53-5, 58, 61, 301

cauliflower [see Brassica oleracea var. botrytis]

Catal Höyük 105, 108, 109, 132

Çayönu 27, 28, 31, 32, 55, 68, 104, 108, 109, 147, 153

Cedrus sp. 167

C. libani 303
Celtis sp. 171, 176, 219
C. australis 62, 176
Centaurea sp. 26, 184
C. depressa 223
C. hyalolepis 42
center of diversity 9

centers of origin [see also centers of type-formation] 6, 9, 11, 13-4, 198, 201, 287

primary 6, 52-62
secondary 52-62
Vavilov’s 6, 7, 10, 51, 65
centers of type-formation 9

Central America 12, 201-2, 303

Central Asia 60-2, 66, 71, 78, 310

Centranthus sp. 26

cereals 6, 86, 88

cultivation with legumes 102, 110
domestic 39, 110
processing 30, 143
Ceylanpinar state farm 304

Chad 288

Chagha Sefid 87

Chagylly 72, 73, 75

Chalcolithic 153

Chandyr River/Valley 76

Chenopodium album subsp. album 223

C. album subsp. iranicum 223
chenopods 161

cherry, sweet [see Prunus avium]

chestnut [see also Castanea sativa] 55

chickling [see also vetch] 112

chickpea [see also Cicer arietinum] 39, 41, 108, 110-12, 219

chicory [see Cichorium intybus]

Childe, V. Gordon 65

Chile 193, 236

China 1, 6, 46, 51, 54-5, 59-61, 239, 298

Chondrilla juncea 223

Chopan 72

Cicer sp. 1, 104, 108, 171

C. arietinum 58, 67, 302
C. arietinum subsp. arietinum 302
C. arietinum subsp. reticulatum 302
C. echinospermum 302
C. reticulatum 58, 67
Cichorium endivia 42, 53

Cichorium intybus 53, 223

Cichorium pumilum 42

Cis-Caucasus 11

Citrus medica 62

Citrus medica var. ethrog 62

Climatic Optimum 86-7, 89, 185

clover, Caucasian [see Trifolium ambiguum]

club wheat [see Triticum compactum]

Coffea arabica 61

Coffea canephora 61

coffee, African [see Coffea canephora]

coffee, Arabic [see Coffea arabica]

collecting germplasm 293-4

Colophospernum mopane 289

Colombia 202

Columella 96

conservation

in situ 289, 300-5, 307, 311-4
ex situ 311, 313
Convolvulus lineatus 23

Coriandrum sativum 17

Cornelian cherry [see Cornus mas]

Cornus mas 54, 171, 176

Coronilla sp. 26

C. scorpioides 42
correspondence analysis 124-30, 126, 128-9, 161, 166, 227

Corsica 225, 228

Corylus sp. 167

C. avellana 54
C. colurna 54
C. maxima 54
cotton [see also Gossypium] 97, 198

cowpea 1

Crataegus sp. 219

Crepis foetida 221

C. foetida subsp. rhoadifolia 223
Crete 55

Crimea 58, 191, 301

crop cultivation [see also domestication (plants)] 9, 33, 35, 67, 69-70, 85, 88, 96, 121, 150-151, 177

crop diffusion 87, 252

Crucianella exasperata 43

cucumber [see Cucumis sativus]

Cucumis melo 54

Cucumis sativus 54

Cucurbita pepo 253

cucurbits 7

cumin [see Cuminum cyminum]

Cuminum cyminum 62

Cunene River 289

Cydonia oblonga 61

Cynara cardunculus 53

Cynara scolymus 53

Cyprus 31, 58

Czechoslovakia 57

D

D genome 237, 240, 242-3, 241, 244, 247-50

Dam Dam Chesme 72, 76

Damascus (city) 31, 56, 308, 312

Damascus Basin 84, 122, 125

Danube River 51

Darius III 98

Darwin 5

date palm [see Phoenix dactylifera]

date palm, false [see Phoenix atlantica]

Daucus sp. 12

D. carota 62
de Candolle, Alphonse 1, 5, 9, 51, 191, 198

Deh Luran 85

Deh Luran Plain 83, 87-8

Deir Alla 94

Deir Zor 99

Der Jamal 300

Dhuweila 105, 109

Dioscorea spp. 6

diversity, of wild plants 6

Diyarbakir 57, 302

D’jade 26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 57, 104, 109, 137, 147, 309

Dolnoslav 147

domestication (animals) 39, 42, 65, 67, 70-1, 73, 75, 77-8, 83, 87, 157

domestication (plants) 6, 8, 25, 32-3, 35, 39, 51-62, 67, 73, 83, 106, 108, 110, 130, 146, 152, 178, 198, 204, 210, 224, 253, 280, 308

domestication (evolution of) 8, 307

dry farming 42

durum wheat [see also Triticum durum] 263-4, 273

E

East Indies 61

ecogeographic zone 22

ecological groups 19

Ecuador 201-2

Egypt 25, 51, 53, 57-60, 65, 93, 95, 193, 194, 227

Egyptian tombs 55, 97

einkorn [see also Triticum monococcum] 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 67, 70, 73-4, 85, 88, 138, 147

El Kowm 105, 109, 147

El Quad 132

Elburz Mountains 71, 75-6

emmer [see also Triticum dicoccum] 25, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 41, 42, 67, 70, 78-8, 147, 149

endemics 19

endive [see Cichorium endivia]

English wheat [see Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum]

Ennedi Plateau 288

ensete [see Musa sp.]

Epipalaeolithic 25, 30, 32, 67, 84-5, 102-3, 106, 309

Equisetum sp. 171

Eragrostis tef 1

Erbaba 205-9

Eremopyrum bonaepartis 43

Erodium cicutarium subsp. cicutarium 223

Esdraelon River 256

Eski Acigöl 161, 162, 164, 165-6, 167-8, 168

Ethiopia 12, 57, 59, 61, 191-4, 193, 288, 310

Euclideum syriacum 42

Eu-Mediterranean zone 127

Euphorbia densa 43

Euphrates River/Valley 30, 31, 35, 40, 44, 57, 67, 87, 122, 128, 132, 148, 155, 156, 170, 178-9, 207, 307, 308, 311

Europe 1, 6, 8, 12, 19, 30, 53-4, 58-9, 235, 246

European Economic Community 310

European hazelnut [see Corylus avellana]

F

faba bean [see also Vicia faba] 108, 110-12

Fagopyrum esculentum 60

fallow/steppe soils 42

farming 35, 41, 252, 308

fennel [see Foeniculum vulgare]

fenugreek [see Trigonella foenumgraecum]

fenzel almond [see Amygdalus fenzliana]

Fertile Crescent 39, 55, 56, 62, 68, 69-71, 74, 78, 83, 85, 89, 103, 207, 252, 254, 263, 300, 304, 307-11

fibre plants 7

Ficus carica 52, 60

fig [see Ficus carica]

filbert [see Corylus maxima]

Firat River 301

fish 77

flax [see also Linum usitatissimum] 27, 31, 39, 87-8, 95, 99, 182, 185

fodder/feed 43, 46, 57-8, 87, 310

Foeniculum vulgare 62

forage legumes 7

forest species 178, 184

forest steppe 30

founder crops 51, 67, 70, 74, 113, 191, 298, 311

foxtail millet [see Setaria sp.]

fractionation 160

France 227

Franchthi Cave 26, 27, 28, 191

fruit crops 6, 7, 30

fruit trees 51, 86, 103

Fumaria sp. 26, 43, 184

fynbos 5

G

Gadimi 72

Galium sp. 26, 108, 171, 184, 282

Ganj Dareh 27, 28, 31, 68, 85, 87-8, 105, 109, 147

garbanzo [see Cicer arietinum]

Garhadiolus angulosus 42

garlic [see Allium sativum]

gathering (food) 35

gazelle 77

Gaziantep 301

Gegharkunik 82

genebanks 22, 269, 285, 293

gene center 61

gene exchange [see also gene migration, introgression] 309

gene migration [see also gene exchange, introgression] 236

genepools 200-4, 242, 244, 247-9, 253

geographical distribution, of crops [see also Part 2] 191-2, 198, 200, 294, 295-7, 298, 302

geographical (crop) groups 19

Georgia, ex-USSR 52, 55, 57-9, 192, 248, 310

Gesher 84

Ghab 161, 162, 165-6, 168

Ghab Valley 103

Ghar-i-Kamarband 72, 76

Ghoraifé (Tell) 27, 28, 32, 68, 104-5, 107, 108, 122, 123, 124, 125

Gievdzhik 72

Gilgal 84, 104, 107

Glaucium sp. 26, 184

G. corniculatum 171

goatgrass [see also Aegilops sp.] 301

goats 70, 87

Golan Heights 313

Gordian 94, 99

Gorgan Valley 71, 76

Gossypioides 286

Gossypium sp. 286, 288

G. anomalum 289
G. arboreum 286
G. areysianum 59
G. barbadense 59, 286
G. benadirense 286, 289
G. bricchettii 286, 289
G. herbaceum 59, 286
G. herbaceum subsp. africanum 287, 289
G. herbaceum var. africanum 286
G. hirsutum 286
G. incanum 59
G. longicalyx 287, 289
G. somalense 286, 289
G. stocksii 289
G. trifurcatum 286, 289
grain legumes 102, 113

grain weight (= seed weight) 269-70, 271

grapevine [see Vitis vinifera]

grass pea [see also Lathyrus sativus] 108, 111-12, 174

grasses 6, 86-7, 103, 106, 161

grazing 179, 264, 287

Greco-Roman 25, 55, 93, 96, 281

Greece 26, 55-6, 59, 191, 193, 227

Gritille 27-8, 105, 109

Guatemala 303

Gugavan 282

Guizotia abyssinica 1

Guran 85

Gypsophila pilosa 42

H

Habur River/Basin 39, 40, 41, 43, 44

Haçilar 68, 105, 108, 134

hackberry [see Celtis australis]

hairy vetch [see also Vicia villosa] 99

Hajar bin Humeid 99

Halaf period 40, 41

Hallan Çemi 26, 28, 68, 84, 86-8, 104, 107

Halula (Tell) 27, 28, 31, 68, 84, 104-5, 108, 132-42, 135-6, 138, 138, 141, 147, 156, 178-85, 183

Hamites 191

Hammam et-Turkman 43

Haplophyllum tuberculatum 43

Harappa 93, 99, 192

harvesting 30, 84, 132, 138-9, 142, 145-52, 147, 149, 309

Hassakeh 40, 301

Hatula 30

Hauran Plain 122, 313

Hayonim 27, 28, 30, 104, 107, 147

Helianthemum salicifolium 171, 177

hemp [see Cannabis sativa]

herbaceous legumes 6, 7

herding [see also domestication (animals)] 87-8, 184

season camps 84
Herodotus 96

Hevea sp. 7

hillcoat cotton [see Gossypium incanum]

Hindu Kush mountains 56

Hindustan 10

Hissar 72, 77

Hoggar 231

Holocene 103, 108, 161, 179

Hordeum sp. 1, 12, 26, 173, 280

H. agriocrithon 55-56
H. antiquorum sphaerococcum 283-4
H. bulbosum 213, 215
H. distichon 16, 171, 173, 213
H. hexastichon 213
H. lagunculiformae 283-4
H. spontaneum 43, 55, 67, 171, 173, 213-5, 294, 295, 298, 308, 311-3
H. urartu 283
H. vulgare 55, 67, 178, 213-4, 215, 283-4
H. vulgare subsp. disticum 16, 67, 308
H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum 304
H. vulgare subsp. vulgare 16
horse bean [see Vicia faba]

Hotu 72, 76

Hula 161, 162, 164, 165-6, 167-8, 170

hulled wheats 269

Hungary 53

hunter-gatherers 6, 26, 33, 69-70, 178, 252, 266, 307-308

Hypercoum sp. 43

I

Iberia 227, 229

India 2, 6, 11, 46, 53-60, 62, 93-4, 191-4, 193, 198, 303, 310

Indian lotus [see Nelumbo nucifer]

Indo-Malayan center 6

Indonesia 3

Indus River/Valley 51, 59, 63, 71, 93, 99

Inner Asia 11

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature 22

Interstadial 106

intraspecific classification 17, 22

intraspecific level 17

intraspecific taxa 17

intraspecific varieties 18

introgression [see also gene exchange, gene migration] 254, 256-9, 258, 260, 262

Iran 26, 53-61, 71, 72, 73, 77, 87, 103, 105, 153, 191, 193, 235-6, 239, 246, 254, 298, 301, 308, 311-2

Irano-Turanian region 110, 122

Iraq 30, 52-3, 55-9, 89, 104-5, 254, 294, 301-2, 308, 312

Iraq-el-Dubb 67, 68, 104, 106, 107, 108

Iron Age 94, 96, 283

irrigation 78, 87, 182

isoenzymes 212, 215

isozyme analysis 194-5

Israel 30, 302, 310-1, 313

Italy 55-7, 60, 227, 229

J

Jalisco, Mexico 202

Japan 1, 60, 153

Jarmo 27, 28, 73, 75, 85, 105, 109

Java 61

Jebel 72, 76, 84

Jebel Abd-el-Aziz 302

Jebel Arab 146, 149, 313

Jebel Druz 300, 302, 305

Jebel Sinjar 302

Jeirun 32, 72, 73, 75-6, 78-9

Jerf el Ahmar 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 34, 68, 84, 104, 107, 145

Jericho 27, 28, 31, 67, 70, 84, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 147

Jezireh 40, 46, 68, 84, 88-9

Jilat 27, 28, 68

Johnson grass [see Sorghum halepense]

Jordan 17, 26, 30, 58, 94, 191, 193, 254, 294

Jordan River/Valley 84, 103, 254-5, 307, 308, 311-2

Juniperus sp. 167

K

Kalahari desert 287, 289

Kara Kum Desert 73

Karacadag Mountain 253, 308, 312

Kashan 71

Kashkashok 147

Karmir Blur 94, 97, 99, 281

Kebara 30, 132

Kelyat 72

Kenya 61, 228, 230, 288

Kerma 43, 44

Kermanshah Plain 85, 153

Khiamian 124, 127

khoranka wheat [see Triticum durum subsp. horanicum]

khurasan wheat [see Triticum turanicum]

Kizilkaya 219

knapping, bipolar 140

Kopet Dag Range 72, 73, 75-6, 77

Kurdistan 59, 310

Kutan 147

L

Lactuca sativa 54

Lactuca serriola 54, 223

L. serriola f. integrifolia 54
Lake Aateibé 122

Lake Chad 288

Lake Fittri 288

Lake Hijjâné 122

Lake Hula 103

Lake Lisan 103

Lake Mirabad 103

Lake Urmia 103

Lake Van 51, 103

Lake Zeribar 103

Late Quaternary 83

Lathyrus sp. 26, 104, 174, 304

L. blepharicarpus 113
L. sativus 58, 108, 171, 175
L. tingitanus 58
Latin America 61, 200

Law of Homologous Series 7, 9, 17

Lebanon 17, 52, 55-6, 193, 300-3, 303

leek [see Allium porrum]

legumes 6, 41, 42, 84, 87, 103, 106, 108

Lens sp. 1, 12, 16, 27, 30, 31, 39, 41, 104, 171, 173, 304
L. culinaris 57, 67, 106, 179, 191
L. culinaris subsp. culinaris 58
L. culinaris subsp. odemensis 58
L. culinaris subsp. orientalis 58, 113, 191
L. ervoides 113
L. esculentum 58
L. nigricans 113
L. nigricans subsp. ervoides 58
L. nigricans subsp. nigricans 58
L. orientalis 67, 177, 312
L. odomensis 58, 113, 312
lentil [see also Lens] 106, 108, 110-12, 182, 185, 219
agro-ecological regions 196

pilosae group 195

lettuce [see Lactuca saliva]

Levant 30, 34, 39, 62, 66-7, 69-70, 84-6, 103, 104-5, 107, 121, 123, 153, 270

Levant garlic [see Allium ampeloprasum]

Libya 53

Ligistrum vulgaris 228

Limpopo River 289

linseed [see flax]

Linum sp. 12, 179

L. angustifolium 59
L. bienne 59, 67
L. usitatissimum 59, 67
Lithospermum sp. 26, 171, 184

livestock [see domestication (animals)]

Lolium sp. 26, 171, 176, 282

Lophopyrum elongatum 238

lupin [see Lupinus sp.]

Lupinus sp.

L. albus 58
L. angustifolius 58
L. cosentini 58
L. luteus 58
L. pilosus 58, 106
L. termis 58
Luxor 57

Lygia pubescens 44

M

macaroni wheat [see durum wheat, Triticum durum]

macha [see Triticum macha]

Madagascar 288

Maghreb 53, 227, 229, 230

Magzalia 27, 28, 32, 39, 105, 109, 147

maize 7, 202-3, 260

Majdal es-Shams 258

Mali 288

mallow 88

Malus pumilla 61

Malva sp. 26, 42, 171

M. neglecta 223
M. sylvestris 223
Mandragora sp. 12

Manihot sp. 3, 5, 7

maquis 127

Mardin province 302

Mashhad 78

Medicago sp. 58, 304, 312

M. cancellata 58
M. dzhawakhetica 58
M. glutinosa 58
M. radiata 42
M. sativa 58
medicinal plants 7, 57, 60, 62, 95-6, 176, 218

Mediterranean region 1, 26, 34, 52, 54-6, 58-60, 62, 93, 112, 191-2, 225, 228, 269, 308

Meggido 147

Melendiz Plains/Mtns. 218-9, 223

Melilotus sp. 12

melons 97

Mesoamerica 3

Mesopotamia 25, 39, 84, 87, 94, 96, 99, 153

Metsamor 283

Mexico 12, 201-2, 253, 303

microclimate 8

microenvironment 259, 261

microwear [see use wear]

Middle Asia 16, 19

Middle East 54, 231

Milankovitch effect 106

millet 1, 6, 97

mixed farming 70

M’lefaat 27, 28, 30, 68, 87, 89, 104, 107

Mohenjo-Daro 59

Mojave desert 304

molecular markers 198-207

molecular polymorphism 201

Mondjukli 72

Morocco 56, 58, 224, 225, 228, 302

morphological characters 273-4, 281

morphological variation 192, 257

mountain regions 6, 8

mountain zones (intertropical) 8, 87

Mozambique 285

Mt. Hebron 310

Mt. Hermon 263, 312

Mt. Kenaan 313

multivariate statistical analysis 123

Mureybit (Tell) 26, 27, 28, 30-2, 35, 68, 84, 86, 104, 107, 122, 123-4, 125, 127-30, 129, 132-7, 133, 147, 191, 308-9

Musa spp. 1

Muscari/Ornithogalum 42

muskmelon [see Cucumis melo]

mutants (non-shattering) 6

N

Nahal Hemar 27, 28, 68, 104, 109, 143

Nahal Oren 30

Naiza 72

Nakhitshevan 211, 248

Namibia 288

Namib desert 287

narbonne vetch [see Vicia narbonensis]

Natufian 30, 121, 124, 127, 132, 137, 146

Near East 1, 33, 39, 51, 52, 54-5, 59-62, 65, 87, 93-4, 145-6, 160, 174, 224, 227, 228, 253, 294-8, 295-7, 308

Negev 30, 103

Nelumbo nucifer 60

Nemrik 30, 87, 105, 109

Neolithic age 56, 59-60, 65-7, 70, 102-3, 133, 281, 308, 313

Neolithic sites [see also by site] 25, 62, 72, 73, 76-7, 85, 174, 185, 295-7

Neolithic farmers 39

Nepal 195

Netiv Hagdud 27, 28, 31, 68, 84, 104, 107

Nevali Çori 27, 28, 54, 62, 147, 170-76, 171, 172-3, 175-6

New Nissa 72

New World 3, 192, 198, 286

Nicaragua 303

Niger 288

Nile River/Valley 65, 71

noog/niger [see Guizotia abyssinica]

North Africa 1, 55, 58, 60-1, 224, 230-1, 307

North America 6, 12, 191

Notobasis syriaca 46

O

oak [see also Quercus] 27, 84, 103, 110, 178, 184

oat [see also Avena] 7

Obeid period 142

Ohalo 26, 27, 28, 30, 104, 107

oil plants 7, 94

Old Mediterranean 9

Olea sp. 12, 167, 227, 229

O. africana 225, 228, 230
O. chrysophylla 225, 231
O. cuspidata 225, 228, 230
O. europaea 60, 184, 224, 226, 228
O. europaea subsp. cerasiformis 225
O. europaea subsp. cuspidata 225
O. europaea subsp. europaea 224, 225
O. europaea subsp. europaea var. sativa 224, 225
O. europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris 224, 225
O. europaea subsp. laperrinei 225
O. europaea subsp. oleaster 60
O. laperrinei 224, 230-1
O. maroccana 224, 228, 230, 231
olive [see Olea]

olive oil 96

onager 77

onion [see Allium cepa]

Ononis spinosa subsp. leiosperma 223

ornamentals 1, 61

Oryza 1

overgrazing 308

ovines [see sheep]

oxen 157

P

Pakistan 53, 56, 93, 193, 194

Paleolithic 26, 224, 280, 307-8

Palestine 55, 58, 60, 224, 236, 254-5, 263, 265, 312

Palmyra range 122

Pamir mountains 19

Panicum spp. 1

P. miliaceum 283
Papaver sp. 26, 171
P. rhoeas 223
P. setigerum 60
P. somniferum 60
parsnip [see Pastinaca sativa]

Pastinaca sativa 62

PCR (polymerase chain reaction) 201-3, 202

pea [see also Pisum sativum] 27, 39, 41, 108, 110, 112

peach [see Amygdalus persica]

peanut [see Arachis]

pear [see Pyrus]

pepper (Capsicum sp.) 198

Persia 60, 98, 310

Persian wheat [see Triticum carthlicum]

Peru 201-2

Pessedjik 72

phaseolin 201-4

Phaseolus spp. 7

P. acutifolius 303
P. acutifolius var. acutifolius 303
P. acutifolius var. tenuifolius 303
P. augusti 303
P. coccineus subsp. coccineus 303
P. coccineus subsp. polyanthus 303
P. costaricensis 303
P. lunatus 303
P. vulgaris 199, 200, 253, 303
P. vulgaris subsp. aborigineus 303
P. vulgaris subsp. sylvestris 303
Phoenix spp.

P. atlantica 60
P. atlantica var. maroccana 60
P. dactylifera 52, 60
P. reclinata 60

Phragmites sp. 171, 219

Pimpinella anisum 62

pineapple 5, 7

Pinus sp. 167

P. brutia 110
P. nigra 219
pistachio [see also Pistacia vera] 84, 86-8, 122

Pistacia sp. 27, 30, 52, 85, 171, 174, 178, 184

P. terebinthus 52
P. vera 52
Pisum sp. 1, 16, 104, 171, 174, 175
P. elatius 58
P. formosum 16
P. fulvum 16, 304
P. humile 58, 67
P. sativum 16, 58, 67, 108
P. sativum subsp. abyssinicum 16
P. sativum subsp. elatius 304
P. sativum subsp. humile 304
plains 8

plant exploitation 119

Plantago sp. 171

plant-gathering 25, 218, 221-2

Pleistocene 111, 161 Pliny 97

plum, cherry [see Prunus cerasifera]

plum, garden [see Prunus domestica]

Polish wheat [see Triticum polonicum]

pollen, study of 160-9, 165

Polygonum sp. 26, 171

P. convolvulus 282
P. bellardii 223
P. cognatum 223
P. persicaria 171
pomegranate [see Punica granatum]

poppy, opium [see Papaver somniferum]

Portulaca oleracea 41, 171, 223

P. oleracea subsp. oleracea 223
potato [see also Solanum] 7

poulard wheat [see also Triticum turgidum] 311

PPNA [see Pre-Pottery Neolithic A]

PPNB [see Pre-Pottery Neolithic B]

pre-Halaf 179, 185

pre-Neolithic 33

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A 30, 67, 68, 69-70, 106, 121, 124, 127-9, 132-7, 219, 294

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B 31, 32, 35, 54, 67, 68, 69-71, 87, 108, 112, 124, 125-30, 126, 132-43, 170, 171, 178, 185, 294

processing (crop) [see also harvesting, threshing] 33, 145, 147, 174

proso [see Panicum sp.]

Prosopis sp. 87

P. farcta 43
proto-Neolithic 84

Prunus sp. 171, 176, 219

P. amygdalus 61
P. armeniaca 61
P. avium 61
P. cerasifera 61
P. domestica 61
P. spinosa 61
pulses 30, 33, 70, 86, 102, 108, 110, 112-13, 173

pumpkin 97

Punica granatum 60

Punica protopunica 61

Pyrus sp. 61, 184, 219

P. caucasica 61
P. communis 61
P. elaeagnifolia 219
P. syriaca 61
P. takhtadzhiana 61
Q

Qazvin 71

Qermez Dere 27, 28, 30, 68, 84, 87, 89, 104, 107

Quercus sp. 85, 184

Q. calliprinos 167
Q. cerris 163, 167, 218
Q. infectoria 218
Q. ithaburensis 163, 167, 218
Q. pubescens 167, 218
Q. robur 163, 167
Q. trojana 218
Q. vulcanica 219
quince [see Cydonia oblonga]

R

Race Durango (bean) 201, 303

Race Jalisco (bean) 201, 303

Race Mesoamerica (bean) 201

radiocarbon dates/dating 73, 124, 160, 163, 164, 168

rainforest 5

Ramad (Tell) 32, 105, 109, 122, 123-24

Ranunculus sp. 171

RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis 195, 224-31

Raqa’i 42-4

Ras Shamra (Tell) 32, 105, 109, 122, 123-24, 125, 128

Razdan River 248

Reseda sp. 26, 43

RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) 205, 236, 238

Rhannus sp. 85

Rheum sp.

R. officinale 60
R. palmatum 60
R. rhaponticum 60
Rhine River 51

rhubarb [see Rheum rhaponticum]

rice [see also Oryza] 6

rice, African 1

rice wheat [see Triticum petropavlovskyi]

Ricinus communis 53, 96

rock shelters 77

root crops 1, 6, 7

Roman culture 96, 310

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum 219, 223

rubber [see Hevea]

Rumex sp. 171, 184

R. acetosella 223
R. crispus 223
R. scutatus 223
Russia 10, 193, 194

rye [see also Secale] 7, 70, 85, 106, 210

S

safflower [see also Carthamus sp.] 39

Sahel 287, 288, 289

Sang-i-Chakmak 71, 72, 76

salad leek [see Allium kurrat]

Salsola/Noaea/Hammada sp. 43

Salvia microstegia 303

San Simeon 300

San’a 52

Sarab 85

Sargon II 280-1

Scandinavia 1

Scariola viminea 223

scarlet runner bean 253

Scorzonera cana var. radicosa 223

Scrophularia sp. 43

SDS-PAGE 243-4, 245

Sea of Galilee 26, 103, 255

Secale sp. 12, 34, 210

S. africanum 211
S. cereale 56, 210-11, 213
S. cereale subsp. afghanicum 210-11
S. cereale subsp. ancestrale 210
S. cereale subsp. cereale 210
S. cereale subsp. dighoricum 210
S. cereale subsp. segetale 210-11
S. cereale subsp. vavilovii 210
S. iranicum 211-2
S. montanum 56, 210-1, 213, 303
S. segetale 55, 212
S. strictum 210-13
S. strictum subsp. africanum 210
S. strictum subsp. anatolicum 210
S. strictum subsp. ciliatoglume 210
S. strictum subsp. kuprijanovii 210
S. strictum subsp. strictum 210
S. sylvestre 56, 210, 212
S. vavilovii 56, 211-13
sedentism/settlement 40, 84

sedges 161

selection 7-8, 46, 54, 151, 192, 194, 199, 204-6, 211, 224-5, 230, 247, 257, 262, 307-11

Selenkahiye 43

Sempervivum armenum var. armenum 223

sesame [see Sesamum indicum]

Sesamum indicum 93, 99

Sesamum orientale var. malabaricum 93

Setaria spp. 1

shallot [see Allium ascalonicum]

Shanidar Cave 84

sheep 87

Sherardia sp. 184

Shillourokambos 31

Shir-i-Shayn 71, 72

shot wheat [see Triticum sphaerococcum]

Siberia 12

Sicily 56

Silene sp. 26

S. conoidea 42
S. vulgaris var. vulgaris 223
Sinapis arvensis 223

Sinkiang 15, 54

Sinskaya 11-12

Sisymbrium altissimum 223

Solanum spp.

S. nigrum 171
S. tuberosum 7
Somalia 288, 289

Sonchus asper subsp. glaucescens 223

sorghum [see Sorghum]

Sorghum sp. 1

S. bicolor 56
S. halepense 56
South Africa 5, 211, 288

South America 3, 5, 6, 303

South Asia 12

South East Asia 60

Southwest Asia 19, 25, 26, 51, 52-3, 56, 66, 69, 102, 106

Spain 56-7, 60, 134, 141, 224, 228, 310

spelt wheat [see also Triticum spelta] 235

spices 6, 7

spinach [see Spinacia oleracea]

Spinacia oleracea 53

Spinacia tetrandra 221, 223

squash (Cucurbita pepo) 253

Stellaria media subsp. pallida 223

steppes 12, 26, 30, 34, 41, 47, 86, 108, 127, 219

steppe vegetation 103, 122, 179, 218

Stipa sp. 43, 171, 176, 177

stock-raising [see also herding] 85

Stone Age 284

storage (of crops) 33, 281-2, 308

sub-Sahara 1, 93

Sudan 288

sugar beet [see Beta vulgaris]

sugarcane 6

Sumbar River/Valley 76

Sumeria 93

sunflower 253

sweet leek [see Allium ampeloprasum]

synaptosperm 257

Syria 17, 26, 30, 31, 44, 52, 55-9, 61-62, 96, 99, 103, 104-5, 106, 108, 121-2, 145-6, 148, 155, 179, 191, 193, 294, 298, 300-15, 310-11

T

Tacca sp. 6

Taenitherium crinitum 42

Tajikistan 11, 62

Tangier pea [see Lathyrus tingitanus]

Tanzania 289

Taraxacum microcephaloides 223

Taraxacum serotinum 223

Taurus mountains 39, 68, 88

tef [see Eragrostis tef]

Tell Ajaja 40

Tell Aswad 104, 106, 107, 109, 122, 123, 125, 134, 147

Tell ‘Atij 147

Tell Gudeda 147

Tell Leilan 147

Tell Ramad 125

Tello 142

Tepary bean [see Phaseolus acutifolius]

Tepe Abdul Hosein 153

Tepe Guran 73, 75

Tepe Hissar 71

Tepe Sabz 87, 147, 191

Tepe Sarab 75

Tepe Sialk 71, 72

Tepe Zaghe 71

terebinth [see Pistacia terebinthus]

Teucrium sp. 184

T. polium 43
Texas 303

Thebes 57

Theobroma cacao 7

threshing 41-3, 145, 153-7, 307

threshing sledge [see tribulum]

Tibet 16, 55, 60, 74, 214

Tibetan wheat [see Triticum tibetanum]

Tigris River 67, 84, 86-7, 207, 307

tobacco 97

Togolok 72, 73

tools 33, 75, 141, 142, 146

bone 132, 142, 146, 149
flint 30, 121-2, 132, 137, 148
groundstone 26, 30, 121, 142, 146, 148, 151, 159
harvesting knife 133
hoe 71, 132, 138, 140-2, 151
obsidian blade 148
sickle 71, 122, 132-140, 133, 135-6, 138, 139, 146, 147, 149, 151, 156-7, 281
stone 71, 75-6
Torilis sp. 43

Tragopogon buphthalmoides 223

Transcaucasia/Transcaucasus 16, 56-7, 59, 236, 237, 239, 248, 284, 294, 298, 310

transhumance 77, 83, 85, 88-9

Transjordan 310

Transvaal 288

Transylvania 270

tree curves 166

tribulum 147, 154-7, 155

Trifolium ambiguum 58

Trifolium israeliticum 58

Trigonella sp. 42

T. foenum-graecum 58
triticale 56

Triticum sp. 12, 13, 18, 34, 170, 172, 173, 274, 280, 293, 304

T. aestivum 15, 18, 19, 20, 55-6, 178-9, 235, 236, 237-40, 242-3, 247-9, 254, 281, 284, 298, 308

T. aest. subsp. aestivum 235, 238

T. aest. subsp. compactum 235, 238

T. aest. subsp. hadropyrum 19

T. aest. subsp. indoeuropaeum 19

T. aest. subsp. strangulata 237, 244, 247-8

T. aethiopicum 15, 18, 21, 22

T. araraticum 13, 15, 254, 260, 282, 296-4, 297, 298, 310, 314

T. baeoticum [see T. boeoticum]

T. boeoticum 13, 15, 18, 55, 57, 67, 74, 139, 170, 219, 253, 269, 271, 293-4, 295, 298, 308-9, 312, 314

T. b. subsp. aegilopoides 309

T. b. subsp. boeoticum 270

T. b. subsp. thaoudar 57, 270, 309

T. carthlicum 13, 15, 18, 57, 273, 275, 276, 277

T. compactum 15, 18, 19, 20, 56, 282, 310

T. c. antiquorum 284

T. dicoccoides 13, 15, 18, 56-7, 67, 74, 170, 171, 254, 265, 269, 270, 284, 293-6, 296, 298, 308, 310, 312

T. dicoccon 18, 269, 271

T. dicoccum 15, 43, 56-7, 67, 139, 171, 178, 252, 270, 271, 273, 275, 276, 277, 281-5, 294, 308-10

T. durum 15, 18, 21, 43, 57, 180-1, 254, 273, 275, 276, 277, 308-12

T. durum convar. villosum 17

T. durum subsp. horanicum 20, 22

T. horanum 256, 263

T. ispahanicum 13, 15, 18, 57

T. jakubzineri 15, 18

T. judaicum 256, 263

T. karamyschevii 13, 15, 18

T. macha 13, 15, 18, 56, 235, 238, 241, 244, 246, 248, 310

T. militinae 15

T. monococcum 15, 18, 57, 67, 134, 481, 236, 253, 269, 270, 271, 293-4, 308, 310

T. m. subsp. aegilopoides 300, 304

T. m. subsp. monococcum 302

T. m. var. clusii 270, 272

T. parvicoccum 284

T. persicum 282-3, 285

T. petropavlovskyi 15, 16, 18, 235

T. polonicum 15, 21, 22, 57, 273, 275, 276, 277, 310

T. p. subsp. polonicum 18

T. sinskajae 13, 15, 18

T. spelta 15, 16, 18, 56, 141, 235, 281-2, 285, 310

T. sphaerococcum 13, 15, 18, 56, 235, 282, 310

T. spontaneum 18

T. tauschii var. meyeri 247

T. tauschii var. typica 247

T. tibetanum 235

T. timopheevii 13, 15, 18, 57, 236, 273, 275, 294, 310

T. t. subsp. araraticum 57, 293, 300-1

T. t. subsp. timopheevii 57

T. turanicum 13, 15, 18, 57

T. turgidum 15, 18, 21, 22, 55, 57, 235, 236, 310

T. t. subsp. dicoccoides 292, 300-1

T. t. subsp. dicoccon 235

T. t. subsp. dicoccum 302

T. t. subsp. turgidum 57

T. urartu 13, 15, 18, 57, 171, 236, 269, 271, 292-4, 296, 298, 300-1, 304, 312, 314

T. vavilovii 13, 15, 18, 56, 235, 238, 241, 245, 246, 248, 310

T. vulgare antiquorum 284

T. yunnanense 235

T. zhukovskyi 13, 15, 18, 57, 236, 294

Tropic of Cancer 6, 8

Tropic of Capricorn 6, 8

tropics 8

Tureng 71, 72, 76

Turkey 26, 53-9, 62, 94, 99, 104-5, 108, 145-6, 148, 153, 155, 170, 193, 218, 227, 236, 239, 246, 253-4, 294, 298, 301-2, 304-5, 308, 310-2

Turkish hazelnut, cob nut [see Corylus colurna]

Turkistan 11

Turkmenistan 11, 55, 66, 72-3, 236, 239, 246

Tutankhamen 93, 99

Typha sp. 219

U

Ugarit 60

Ukraine 53

Umm Dabaghiyah 89

Umm ez-Soueitina 132

Umm Qseir 40, 41

Upper Galilee 314

Urartu 93, 97, 99, 280-2

urbanism 25

Urfa province 170, 301-2, 304

urial (Ovis vignei) 75

Urtica dioica 223

use wear 122, 132, 137, 140, 148, 149, 153, 155

USA 45, 53

USSR 53, 55, 310

Uzbekistan 11, 191

V

Vaccaria pyramidata 42

Vagarshapat 281

Valerianella sp. 26

Vavilov 1, 5, 7, 9, 17, 39, 51, 65, 113, 211, 255-6, 310

vegetation zone 34

vegetational fingerprints 121-30

Verbena officinalis 171

Veronica anagallis-aquatica 219, 223

vetch, common [see Vicia saliva]

vetch, bitter [see also Vicia ervilia] 108, 110, 112

vetch, wild [see also Vicia narbonensis] 108

Vicia sp. 26, 104, 110, 174, 303-4

V. amphicarpa 59
V. cordata 59
V. ervilia 27, 59, 67, 104, 108, 171, 174, 175
V. faba 59, 108, 171, 174, 176
V. faba var. minuta 59, 104
V. incisia 59
V. macrocarpa 59
V. narbonensis 59, 108
V. nigra 59
V. pilosa 59
V. sativa 39, 41, 59
V. villosa 59
Vitis sp. 171, 176
V. vinifera 52, 62
Volga Basin 57

von Humboldt, Alexander 51

W

Wadi el-Jilat 26, 104-5, 108, 109

Wadi Fidan 105, 109

Wadi Hammeh 27, 28, 30, 104, 107

West Africa 288

West Asia 54-5, 58-62, 194, 280-1, 307, 308, 310

wheat (general reference to) 1, 7, 27, 31, 39, 97, 182, 185, 203, 219, 235, 256-7

free-threshing 108
xerophytic-type 17
white lupin [see Lupinus albus]

wild barley 26, 31, 69, 74, 146, 147, 281

wild boar 75

wild cereals 26, 30, 33, 69, 128, 148

wild einkorn [see also Triticum boeoticum] 69, 84, 128, 146, 147, 149, 178, 184, 270, 294, 301

wild emmer [see also Triticum dicoccoides] 26, 147, 260, 262, 263, 264

wild flax [see also Linum bienne] 69

wild grape [see Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris]

wild grasses 26, 30

wild lentil 69

wild oat [see Avena sterilis]

wild pea [see also Pisum elatius, Pisum humile] 69

wild poppy [see Papaver setigerum]

wild pulses 21, 69

wild rye 69, 84, 146, 180, 186, 212, 281

wild vetch [see Vicia narbonensis]

wild wheat 31, 146, 149, 281

wild/’weed’ taxa 73, 125-30, 126, 128-9

Windhoek Mountains 288

winterhardiness 194

X

Xenophon 96

Xero-Euxinian vegetation 218

Xero-Mediterranean vegetation 122

Y

yam bean 253

Yangzte River 3

Yarim 71, 72, 76

Yarti Gumbez 72

Yellow River 1

Yemen 51, 52, 54, 61, 231, 288, 289, 310

Yerevan 94, 97

Yiftah-el 68, 104, 108-10, 109, 191

Younger Dryas 30, 31, 35, 83, 84, 88, 102, 106, 113, 167, 178

Yugoslavia 56-7, 227, 229

Yunnan wheat [see Aegilops yunnanense]

Z

Zaghe 72, 77

Zagros Range/mountains 35, 39, 68, 68-71, 73-5, 78, 83-5, 87-8, 103, 142

Zaire 288, 289

Zambezi 289

Zanduri wheat [see also Triticum timopheevii, T. zhukovskyi, T. monococcum] 57

Zawi Chemi 84

Zeribar 86, 89

Ziyade 42

Ziziphora sp. 43


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