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Sections > Latest issue > No.

English
Participatory conservation: a means of encouraging community biodiversity
The conservation of natural resources and biodiversity is threatened by increasing habitat loss, the degradation of the environment and the introduction of modern crop varieties. Although local landraces and crop varieties are potential sources of valuable genes that could benefit the farming community, their conservation depends to a large extent on the personal motivation of farmers and the continuation of traditional farming methods. There is growing apprehension that many landraces and site-specific genetic resources could be lost. Trait expression in these genetic resources is highly dependent upon the local environment, and has evolved over a long period of time through traditional and cultural cropping practices. Such varieties should be conserved in situ preferably on-farm. Techniques for their conservation, seed maintenance and regeneration can be fine-tuned and efficiently applied if farmer knowledge is reinforced with formal theory. Increasingly attention is being focused on participatory conservation to provide a synergy between formal-sector and farmer approaches. This paper describes how landraces and local crop varieties could be conserved by the use of field genebanks and area genebanks linked to community genebanks, and through these, to a national genebank. Improved breeding strategies, resulting from a farmer- formal sector synergy, offer more options for providing a secure and sustainable livelihood for the large numbers of poor farmers who at present receive little or no assistance from the formal sector.

By V. Arunachalam  

published on No.122, in English
Page 1 to 6

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English
Plant genetic resources of crop interest for Orinoquia venezolana
Between 1987 and 1999, the National Fund for Agricultural Research (FONAIAP) with the support of both the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) and FAO, organized 10 collecting expeditions to the Venezuelan Orinoquia and Amazonia, particularly in the States of Amazonas, Bolívar and Delta Amacuro. A total of 398 samples were collected in the fields of small farmers and native communities of that region. The germplasm collected included species that are original from the Orinoquia, such as cassava (Manihot esculenta) and pineapple (Annanas spp.), as well as species that have their centre of diversity in Venezuela, like maize (Zea mays), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and annato (Bixa spp.). Moreover, in the prospected region, the State with more cultivated area is Bolívar (24 283 ha) and the most planted species is maize (13 661 ha).

By Víctor Segovia  E. Mazzani  Francia Fuenmayor  

published on No.122, in English
Page 7 to 12

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English
Production of Populus euphratica Oliv. x P. alba. L. hybrid poplars through ovary and ovule cultures
Ovary and ovule embryo culture were used to produce hybrid poplar plants of Populus euphratica and P. alba. Developed ovaries and ovules were isolated from P. euphratica female branches which were then pollinated with P. alba pollen grains by using either the bottle grafting, mature tree, or twig and pot technique. The isolated ovaries and ovules of P. euphratica were then transferred to growth-regulator free 50% Murashige and Skoog (MS) agar medium for embryo germination. Only 45-day-old P. euphratica ovary and ovule embryos produced plantlets. Because of the long period required for embryo development when P. euphratica is used as a maternal plant, artificial pollination using bottle grafting and the twig and pot pollination system, as well as 10 to 21-day-old ovary and ovule embryos of P. euphratica, did not produce hybrid plants. A maximum of two to three plantlets was observed in P. euphratica x P. alba ovary culture. The efficiency of pollinated ovaries to produce plantlets was 67%, whereas 90% of the pollinated P. euphratica ovules successfully produced plantlets. Before being transferred to potting soil, plantlets were cultured in the same medium within jars. Thirteen P. euphratica x P. alba hybrid plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse and transferred to the field.

By Ali Reza Modir-Rahmati  Ali Jafari Mofidabadi  

published on No.122, in English
Page 13 to 15

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English
Multivariate analysis of the genetic diversity of Bolivian quinua germplasm
To determine the genetic diversity of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), its morphological traits and agronomic performance were evaluated during 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 using germplasm conserved in Bolivia and IBPGR descriptors modified by the Quinua Project of the Fundación PROINPA. Three multivariate methods were used to analyze diversity, which allowed groups of accessions to be described while considering their multiple characteristics and the relationships among them. Principal components analysis was used to quantify the contribution of three independent combinations of characters to the total variance and to identify the variables contributing to each component. Non-hierarchical (k-means) cluster analysis was used to group accessions. The resulting seven clusters were analyzed, together with passport data, to provide useful descriptions of the germplasm. Multiple group discriminant function analysis complemented the study, resulting in six statistically significant functions, which separated the different groups. About 92% of the accessions were readily classified into the seven groups identified by cluster analysis.

By Patricio Barriga  Wilfredo Rojas  Heriberto Figueroa  

published on No.122, in English
Page 16 to 23

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English
Present distribution of Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. in Chile
The information about the actual distribution of Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. in Chile was updated, based on two collecting expeditions performed in 1992 and 1995 that run from the VIIth to the XIth Regions. The data about the geographical position and altitude of the collection sites allowed determination of the predominant climatic conditions where the species still grows, spontaneously or cultivated. Most accessions were collected in sites whose climate had a great amplitude and a wide diversity in the other climatic variables. Most of the accessions grew between 101 and 500 m asl, but some were found from 1 to 1850 m asl. In relation to latitude, most of the accessions were collected between 36° and 39° S, though they were also found from 34° 55’ (in Iloca) to 44°43’ (in Puerto Cisnes) in the coastal region, and from 35° 30’ (Vilches) to 47°33’ (in Laguna Larga, Cochrane) inland. Three types of plants were found: wild with small red fruits (F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis f. patagonica), wild with medium or small white fruits, and cultivated with large white fruits (F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis f. chiloensis). The white-fruited cultivated accessions were always close to the sea or near a lake and never found above 500 m asl. Only three wild white-fruited accessions were found, and these at low altitude. The wild red-fruited plants are spread all over the area of collection from sea level to the high Andean mountains, although there were virtually no plants in areas dedicated to agriculture or cattle production.

By A. Lavín  M. Maureira  A. del Pozo  

published on No.122, in English
Page 24 to 28

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English
Collecting of Coffea abeokutae Cramer and Coffea liberica Bull. in southwestern Nigeria
Between April 1997 and February 1998 an expedition was undertaken by staff members of the Coffee Programme of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) in 11 selected areas in the southwestern part of Nigeria to collect Coffea abeokutae Cramer and C. liberica Bull. endangered by genetic erosion. Three accessions of C. abeokutae and six accessions of C. liberica were collected in Ikereku-Akinyele, Oyo State and Iyamoye, Kogi State. Coffea abeokutae was distinguished by its conical shape; usually one, erect primary branch; lanceolate, shiny, leathery and green leaves; C. liberica was characterized by its large tree, big leaves and yellowish to reddish fruit colour. Coffea liberica was further classified into three types based on the positions of primary branches, size of leaves and colour of ripened fruit. Plants of the two Coffea species were raised by berries and stem cuttings for ex situ conservation in the Institute’s germplasm collection. The efforts to collect and maintain other Coffea species threatened with extinction should be continued to expand the coffee germplasm collection in CRIN.

By S.S. Omolaja  C.R. Obatolu  J.A. Williams  

published on No.122, in English
Page 29 to 31

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English
Identification of powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) cultivars grown in Bulgaria and Russia
Common wheat cultivars from Bulgaria and Russia were analyzed for their resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust diseases. Seventeen cultivars grown in Bulgaria and 16 cultivars from Russia possessed major genes resistant to powdery mildew, among which Pm5 was the most widely distributed. A total of 16 cultivars from these countries showed resistance that differed from the response patterns of the major powdery mildew genes or gene combinations. Twenty-eight cultivars from Bulgaria and 17 from Russia exhibited resistance to race-specific leaf rust pathogens. The most common resistance gene was Lr3ka. Cultivars ‘Kristal’ and ‘Pobeda’ possessed a wide spectrum of resistance to both diseases and should be incorporated in future breeding programmes.

By Nedialka Petrova  Sai L.K. Hsam  Penko Spetsov  Friedrich J. Zeller  

published on No.122, in English
Page 32 to 35

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English
Inventory of olive tree collections in Tunisia
The Tunisian olive heritage, where two oil cultivars have always prevailed, is rather rich and includes a tremendous number of varieties. Through the years, some interesting varieties have been preserved in several collections established throughout the country. As a first step and in order to take advantage of such material , the collections have been inventoried (i.e. the number of collections, their location, the number of trees, the number of varieties, their origin, the date of finding, the collection state, etc.). The investigation indicated that: there is an important number of collections, rich in varieties, for which maintenance and the exploitation of the available diversity is lacking, and most of the collections are cultivated as orchards for fruit production and by-products. The important number of collections and their distribution over a wide range of growing conditions are major reasons for promoting the protection and preservation of the genetic stock to ensure the durability of the olive-oil sector and to save its yield potential, resistance and adaptation. To achieve this goal, three collections as national conservation centres are suggested. These centres will be managed by reserach institutes able to ensure the durability of the genetic variability of olive tree collections.

By Monji Msallem  L. Radhouane  Hechmi Mehri  

published on No.122, in English
Page 36 to 40

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English
A comparative study on the seed germination of selected species at the Gatersleben genebank to test the effect of freezing and rewarming on germinability
Research was carried out at the Gatersleben genebank to assess whether frequent freezing and rewarming has a negative effect on the germinability of seeds. Tests were carried out on four species Triticum aestivum and Secale cereale for cereals, Pisum sativum for legumes and Allium cepa for vegetables. After assessing the initial germinability of seeds, one lot of accessions of each species was kept as a control at -15°C while a second lot was frozen (-15°C) and then rewarmed (10°C) 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 times. Throughout the experiment germination tests were conducted on both lots according to the international rules for seed testing. Only slight differences in germinability were observed for the four species tested even after 200 cycles of freezing-rewarming. These results show that it may no longer be necessary to split collections into base and active collections, thus facilitating genebank management.

By A. Börner  A. Meister  C.E. Specht  

published on No.122, in English
Page 41 to 43

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English
Collecting wild forage species in the northeastern region of Bulgaria
Collecting wild forage species in the northeastern region of Bulgaria A joint collecting mission was carried out in July 1995 in northeastern Bulgaria by scientists from the Institute of Introduction and Plant Genetic Resources (IPGR), Sadovo, Bulgaria, the Forage Institute, Pleven, Bulgaria and the Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, Japan. A total of 132 seed samples, belonging to 52 different species, were gathered from 35 sites. The collected material was deposited in the genebank of the IPGR, Sadovo for short-term storage.

By Yana Guteva  Michio Kanbe  Docho Shamov  Peter Tomov  Mitsuru Gau  

published on No.122, in English
Page 44 to 45

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English
Rice as a medicinal plant in Chhattisgarh, India
Summary not availablee

By G.K. Das  P. Oudhia  

published on No.122, in English
Page 46 to 46

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English
High tech tools are improving agriculture to fight poverty
Summary not availablee


published on No.122, in English
Page 78 to 79

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English
Update on Vavilov-Frankel Fellowships
Summary not availablee


published on No.122, in English
Page 46 to 47

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Chenopodium quinoa intercropped with faba bean in South American highlands. This crop is discussed in the paper by Rojas et al., (pp. 16-23). Photo by IPGRI.
IPGRI©


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