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Sections > Latest issue > No.

English

Genetic diversity assessment of Mentha spicata L. germplasm through RAPD analysis Fifteen elite accessions in the national gene bank of Mentha spicata L. at the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP) were investigated for the level of their diversity in their morphological and oil quality characteristics. Using these morphotypic and chemotypic variations, a graphic phenogram of the morpho-chemical association among these 15 accessions was produced by UPGMA cluster analysis. In terms of oil component analysis, the highest percentage of carvone was recorded in the essential oil of accession CIMAP/C23 (77.02%), followed by accessions C21, C29, C20, C19, C25 and C26 (more than 70%). Similarly, the minimum limonene content was found in the essential oil of accession C30 (0.80%) and the maximum in accession C34 (18.94%). In this phenotypic diversity analysis, the accessions C30 and C34 demonstrated contrasting characteristics at morphological as well as chemotype levels. Further analysis was carried out to probe this variation at the genetic level and for this purpose, RAPD profiling of the genomic DNAs of all the accessions was carried out using 80 random decamers in AP-PCR mode. From the polymorphism observed for DNA bands, the pooled similarity matrix was developed. The graphic phenogram of the genetic association among the 15 accessions was generated using UPGMA cluster analysis using the similarity indices of the matrix. These genetic and morpho-chemical clusters were compared for relatedness and differences. It was observed that RAPD analysis for the phylogenetic relationship was a better indicator of descendancy and origin among the germplasm accessions.

By Alka Srivastava  Ajit K. Shasany  Sushil Kumar  Suman P.S. Khanuja  Janak R. Bahl  Srikant Sharma  

published on No.130, in English
Page 1 to 5

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English

Computer tools for spatial analysis of plant genetic resources data: 2. FloraMap FloraMap is a specialized computer program (and associated data) that was developed to map the predicted distribution, or areas of possible climatic adaptation, of organisms in the wild. The climate at the locations where populations of a given taxon were recorded is assumed to be representative of the environmental range of the organism. The mean monthly values of 3 climatic variables at these locations are extracted from a set of interpolated climate grids and used to define a multivariate normal distribution, which is in turn used to calculate a probability surface for the occurrence of the species. The software can be used for a number of different plant genetic resource applications besides predicting species distributions. Some of these are described, along with future plans for development of the software.

By Luigi Guarino  P.G. Jones  A. Jarvis  

published on No.130, in English
Page 6 to 10

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English

Field resistance to Aspergillus flavus from exotic maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm The objective of this study was to determine genetic variability in the newly developed germplasm from the US Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project for resistance to Aspergillus flavus. Sixty-one exotic ´ adapted maize breeding crosses were evaluated for resistance to A. flavus, measured as percent kernel infection (PKI) in 1995 and 1996. Highly significant genotypic effects for PKI in both years indicated that a substantial genetic variability existed among the maize breeding crosses (genetic coefficient of variation (GCV)=19.5% for PKI). The lowest PKI value within a subset of 27 genotypes (p=0.05) was 10.9% and the highest PKI was 23.6%, representing a range of variability among the crosses for resistance to A. flavus. The implications are that sources of resistance to A. flavus can be selected at a relatively high probability and at a relatively high culling level. Selection for high PKI or low PKI at 10% selection intensity from the breeding population would be expected to effect a substantial change in PKI. The crosses evaluated in this study could serve as useful source materials for developing new inbred lines with relatively greater levels of resistance to A. flavus than those previously available.

By Ruming Li  Manjit S. Kang  Orlando J. Moreno  L.M. Pollak  

published on No.130, in English
Page 11 to 15

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English

The International Lactuca Database The international Lactuca database (ILDB) was established at CGN during the first half of the year 2000 and by July 2000 contained 12 028 accessions, which represent about 82% of the world holdings. It includes data sets from 21 institutions of 17 countries. Advanced cultivars are best represented in the database, followed by wild species and landraces. Of the cultivated material, the Butterhead types are the most frequent, followed by Cos, Crisp and Cutting types. The accessions of wild species consist, for the largest part, of L. serriola. The database is available on the Internet on-line as well as downloadable. The database can be of help to breeders and other scientists in selecting material for their research, and curators who must make collection management decisions. It currently gives only information on passport data. Information on availability of the material and evaluation data are not yet included. The database will be updated and analysed in the future.

By Helena Stavelikova  Ietje W. Boukema  T.J.L. van Hintum  

published on No.130, in English
Page 16 to 19

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English

Isoenzymatic characterization of cotton genotypes (Gossypium sp.) from the genebank at CENIAP, Venezuela Of all present accessions in the genebank at the National Agricultural Research Center, Maracay, Venezuela, 60% have been morphologically characterized. Supplementary information is needed to identify genotypes and to quantify the existing diversity. The present research effort was undertaken to permit the isoenzymatic characterization of native and commercial cotton types in the bank, and study the variability of the evaluated accessions. The electrophoretic runs were carried out in polyacrylamide gels in a Disc-PAGE system (6–12%) at 30 MA and 100 V, using seeds of 60 bank accessions that were first imbibed for 24 h and then harrowed. The buffer extraction solution was cystine 20 mm and KCl 0.1 M, pH 7.3. Ten enzymatic systems were evaluated (MDH, GDH, IDH, LDH, LAP, ME a and b esterases, PGI and SOD). The data were coded in a binary basic matrix and were analysed using a multivariate technique. The isoenzymatic characterization showed polymorphisms for six (MDH, IDH, a and b esterases, PGI and SOD) of the ten evaluated systems. In the combined analysis of the six selected enzymatic systems two groups were identified, comprising a total of eleven classes. One group included ten native samples while the other included the remaining evaluated accessions. Some samples from Miranda, Zulia, Merida, Falcon, Nueva Esparta, Aragua, Monagas and Bolívar were separated; thus leading to the conclusion that these materials are closely related. Another materials from Anzoátegui, Miranda, Sucre, Mérida, Zulia, Falcón, Nueva Esparta, Aragua, Monagas and Bolívar were very close to commercial varieties, thus allowing the inference that parental connections exist among them. This investigation allowed identification of similarities and differences among Gossypium genotypes.

By M. Gutiérrez Mulas  P. Lourdes del C. Gonzalez  R. Asia Y, Zambrano  Morela Fuchs  

published on No.130, in English
Page 20 to 24

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English

Collecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm in southern Brazil Bean crop varieties developed by breeding programmes or introduced by farmers over the years, meet local climatic conditions, present good yield potential and provide food, nutrition and income to the community. The major achievement of breeding programmes in Brazil was to improve yield and provide varieties with nutrition value better than old ones, besides disease resistance and adaptability. However, farmers still crop some special grain types used for preparation of special dishes or for small markets where the product of their small farms obtain market value. If not for this kind of common practice, many traditional bean types could be extinct today as a result of their gradual substitution by modern improved cultivars.

By Edson H.N. Vieira  J.R. Fonseca  

published on No.130, in English
Page 25 to 27

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English

One plus one equals three: maximizing participation in plant genetic resource networks Involving stakeholders in decision-making is widely recognized as important, although many organizations find that effective participation is often difficult to achieve. This article describes a comparative case study of participation in four genetic resources management networks. The study analyzed the networks and compared them with three well-known models that relate to organizational development, decision-making and participation. The article briefly introduces the models and then presents major findings and conclusions. In order for members to participate effectively in decision-making, processes and structures must be created which facilitate member involvement. For example, regular meetings that focus on decision-making can be held or representational structures established in cases where the membership cannot meet regularly. Clear and agreed-upon principles and objectives must also be negotiated at the outset and operating plans developed based upon them. Members should be expected to make tangible contributions to the network as a way of establishing and maintaining ownership. In order to promote member participation, networks must achieve a careful balance between external and internal funding and support, so that agendas are not driven more by external than by internal forces. In conclusion, the article presents a checklist for the consideration of networks that want to engage better their membership in decision-making.

By z  

published on No.130, in English
Page 28 to 35

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English

Collection and evaluation of germplasm of Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B.L. Burtt and A.W. Hill), an indigenous fruit tree of Nepal The distribution of lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris) in Nepal and major seed and fruit production areas, centres for production, processing and marketing have been identified. Indigenous knowledge about cultivation, management and utilisation of lapsi was collected, and progress was achieved in developing vegetative propagation methods including tissue culture technique. With an objective to select and evaluate germplasm of lapsi, female trees from 11 villages were selected using farmers and processors criteria about superior trees: high and low pulp content (locally called ‘Bose’/’Hade’), sweet and sour taste (‘Guliyo’/’Amilo’), large and small fruits size (‘Thulo’/’Sano’), and maturity, i.e. early and late variety (‘Aghaute’/’Pachaute’). Physico-chemical evaluation of fruits from selected trees confirmed significant differences in all the parameters evaluated between sites and between trees within sites. Farmers were more concerned with higher annual yield/tree, whereas processors were more concerned about high pulp recovery. ‘Guliyo’, ‘Bose’ and ‘Thulo’ lapsi were preferred by farmers, processors and fresh fruit consumers. Seventeen trees qualified for all three traits from multi-trait assessment, 23 trees were selected for large and pulpy, 23 for large and sweet and for sweet and pulpy lapsi. All selected trees were marked, are protected in situ and strongly recommended for mass propagation and breeding. Seedlings from 52 selected families have been planted as a Breeding Seed Orchard (BSO) and 24 trees (14 female and 10 male) were vegetatively propagated and planted in a genebank for further research and multiplication.

By K.C. Paudel  K. Pieber  R. Klumpp  M. Laimer de Camara Machado  

published on No.130, in English
Page 36 to 46

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English

A novel technique for plant and seed regeneration of freeze-sensitive berseem and Persian clover in Georgia, USA Experiments were performed to test the effectiveness of a spring/summer schedule for regenerating cool-season annual clover species. Both berseem and Persian clover were efficiently regenerated in the field following an off-season spring/summer schedule. This protocol involved transplanting 1 to 2-month-old berseem and Persian clover plants grown in the greenhouse to the field between mid March and the first week of April. Pollination cages were placed over each plot when plants were near 50% flowering. Plants yielded from 104 to 74 000 seeds about 3-4 months after transplanting. High-quality plants and more than adequate seed numbers were regenerated from all berseem and Persian clover accessions tested.

By Brad Morris  

published on No.130, in English
Page 47 to 50

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English

Assessment of genetic diversity in a carrot (Daucus carota L.) germplasm collection Genetic diversity of 26 carrot accessions from the collection of genus Daucus maintained in the Polish Gene Bank and five Polish cultivars was evaluated using RAPDs. Based on 34 obtained markers a neighbour-joining tree was drawn showing genetic diversity within this collection. The genetic distances between accessions were assessed and the groups of the most similar accessions were indicated.

By D. Grzebelus  R. Baranski  T. Kotlinska  B. Michalik  

published on No.130, in English
Page 51 to 53

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English

Genetic resources and breeding of the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) The Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) shows significant genetic diversity, with variability in plant colour, inflorescence type, growth habit, and chemical composition. This diversity enables it to adapt to a wide range of agroecological conditions. Recognizing the value of this diversity, and the need to maintain it, genebanks have been established throughout the Andean region conserving more than 3000 accessions. However, there is an ongoing risk of genetic erosion of the seed supply in genebanks as well as in production areas, due to environmental factors and the introduction of modern varieties developed for commercial use. The risk of genetic erosion in wild quinoa species is of particular concern because of their small, isolated populations. Although in situ conservation may be regarded as an alternative to counteract these effects, it is limited by socioeconomic and funding constraints. Quinoa originated around Lake Titicaca in Peru and Bolivia, a region that hosts great genetic diversity and distribution of Chenopodium species. Along with the cultivated quinoa and cañihua (C. pallidicaule Aellen), wild types found in this area include C. hircinum with 2n=4x=36 chromosomes, and C. petiolare with 2n=18 chromosomes, the species most similar to cultivated quinoa. According to field research, cultivated quinoa species are always accompanied by wild species within their areas of distribution. Cultivated material and wild types remain uncollected in many areas.

By Sven-Erik Jacobsen  Angel Mujica  

published on No.130, in English
Page 54 to 61

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English

Influence of packaging media on the storability of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Sun-dried pods of four groundnut cultivars were stored in five different packaging materials (kraft paper bags, tar-coated kraft paper bags, polyethylene bags, tri-layered aluminium foil pouches and transparent polyethylene containers) under ambient conditions in Gujarat, western India. Germination and seedling vigour were tested every 6 months for 30 months. Germination and seedling vigour declined fastest in seeds stored in kraft paper bags and tar-coated kraft paper bags, falling to less than 10% after 30 months. Seeds stored in the other three packaging materials retained high germination rates (over 70%) and seedling vigour up to 18 months of storage. Those stored in tri-layered aluminium foil pouches continued to show high germination rates and seedling vigour up to 30 months in storage (70–80% germination), while germination rates of seeds stored in polyethylene bags and containers declined, with the decline being greatest in seeds stored in polyethylene containers. The results suggest that using tri-layered aluminium foil pouches could reduce the frequency of regeneration needed to maintain viability in groundnut germplasm stored under ambient conditions similar to those in Gujarat.

By K. Chandran  K. Rajgopal  

published on No.130, in English
Page 62 to 64

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English

Evaluation on genetic diversity of Hedysarum species in Mediterranean basin The genetic diversity analysis of mediterranean Hedysarum species, collected from Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Sardinia and Malta islands and in the south of France, has permitted, collection, inventory, characterization and demarcation of their area of distribution. Regarding to their wide and various distribution areas, these species constitute a significant genetic potential suitable for agronomic exploitation and for development and improvement of rangelands or in forage production. Algeria, with nine among the ten targeted species, constitutes a biodiversity reserve. However, genetic erosion is observed in the North African countries, as shown by the reduction or even the extinction of several species. In addition, morphological analysis carried out on seven species in their natural area, has showed a great genetic variability related to vegetative development, which affects agronomic issues.

By N. Trifi-Farah  H. Baatout  Mohamed Boussaid  D. Combes  J. Figier  A. Hannachi-Salhi  M. Marrakchi  

published on No.130, in English
Page 65 to 72

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English

A case of community-based, traditional on-farm germplasm management in Germany In highly industrialized countries traditional community based seed supply systems have disintegrated since the mid 19th century. Owing to a lack of economic incentives they have been almost lost in Germany by the mid 20th century. Against the background of this development, on-farm management activities recommended by the Global Plan of Action are difficult to implement in practice. A framework programme needs to be set up by agricultural organizations in Germany to provide guidelines and incentives to farmers or communities interested in contributing to the maintenance of genetic resources on-farm. A rare example of traditional on-farm management was found in the Vogelsberg area close to Frankfurt. Four peasant families have maintained the ‘Vogelsberger’ fodder beet for about 6 decades and are adapting the germplasm to the very specific local production conditions. The management system is described as an example of how new on-farm management projects can be planned and implemented.

By L. Frese  Josef Efken  

published on No.130, in English
Page 73 to 76

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Underexploited tuber crops in Zimbabwe: a study on the production of Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculentus) The Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculentus) is one of the edible indigenous tuber crops commonly grown under both dryland and wetland conditions in parts of the eastern districts of Zimbabwe. Although the crop could be considered of minor importance globally in terms of total production and commercial value, it plays a significant role in human nutrition in different communities of some countries including Zimbabwe. In addition to its acceptance and nutritional value, the Livingstone Potato has been associated with certain therapeutic properties. A study was carried out on P. esculentus in the major producing areas of Zimbabwe to investigate the extent and importance of production of this crop. At least 15 varieties of the Livingstone Potato are currently grown under the farmers’ traditional practices in the country. Scientific recommendations on the agronomy of this crop have neither been developed nor disseminated to growers. This lack of mechanisms for promoting and investigating this little known but potentially useful indigenous crop has constrained improved production and utilization. Gradual depletion of varieties is being experienced and a massive effort is required to safeguard the survival of this orphaned genetic resource. The Livingstone Potato could become an important complement for other root and tuber crops if essential research needs, development and policy issues are addressed and satisfied. This report challenges researchers, policy-makers and other related disciplines to assist in achieving a more efficient and balanced exploitation of P. esculentus.

By Patient D. Dhliwayo  

published on No.130, in English
Page 77 to 80

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Quinoa growing in the harsh climatic and edaphic conditions of the salt desert of the Southern Bolivian antiplano, Salares de Uyuni (3600 m asl). S.E. Jacobsen and A. Mujica discuss the genetic resources and breeding of this valuable crop on pp. 54-61.
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This newsletter, published under the joint auspices of the Bioversity International (Bioversity) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), features articles and reviews of developments in plant genetic resources, book reviews, news and notes on Bioversity activities.

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