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Sections > Latest issue > No.

English
Contribution of morphological descriptors to the inventory and identification of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties
Identification of olive varieties (Olea europaea L.) was carried out on multi-character phenotypes, obtained from the combination of categories of 23 morphological descriptors applied on samples of fruits, endocarps, leaves and inflorescences. The study used 40 foreign varieties selected among the main Mediterranean varieties and 12 Moroccan olive varieties. The morphological descriptors studied revealed an important morphological polymorphism in the studied sample of varieties with a discriminatory capacity of the order of 100%. Thus, all varieties were identified with different morphological characters. The stability, for the same variety, of these characters was confirmed by multi-year observations. Multivariate analysis (AFCM) showed that characters of the fruit (form, symmetry, base, position of maximum transverse diameter, size of lenticels), the endocarp (form, symmetry in position A, position of maximum transverse diameter, base, surface) and the leaf (form) have a high identification potential for the studied varieties. The obtained results should encourage greater application of morphological descriptors, in combination with genetic markers, for reliable identification of olive varieties and consequently the definition and characterization of some reference types of each cultivated variety within the Mediterranean basin.

By A. Idrissi  N. Ouazzani  

published on No.136, in English
Page 1 to 10

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English
Evaluating the effectiveness of small isolation distances for the field multiplication of Vicia faba L. using a morphological recessive marker
Gene flow in a cultivar of faba bean homozygous for the recessive determinate growth gene ti was measured by bordering the field test plot on one side by a thick plot of a cultivar showing the dominant indeterminate allele for this marker. The experiment was carried out at Córdoba (Southern Spain) under natural pollination conditions. Our interest was to measure the minimum distance required to isolate the cultivar to avoid out-crossing. Out-crossing decreased with the distance. The decreasing of the indeterminate allele followed a leptokurtic pattern over the distance. The frequency of the indeterminate allele declined dramatically beyond a distance of 7–8 m from the source of the dominant gene.

By S. Nadal  María José Suso  M. T. Moreno  J.I. Cubero  

published on No.136, in English
Page 11 to 13

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English
Enhancing germplasm utilization to meet specific users’ needs through interactive stratified core selections

The large collection of landraces of sorghum, pearl millet, pigeonpea, chickpea and groundnut held at ICRISAT represents a challenge for the maintenance of both the accessions and the information documented for this germplasm. These collections are often the result of collecting missions and specific research programmes that may result in over-representation of certain materials. Core collections improve the sampling while selecting accessions from a germplasm collection. However, static core collections, which are a priori selected by the curator, are often of limited use to the users of the genebank who are interested in a specific trait or domain. The current revolution in information technology makes it possible for users to make such selections themselves on the Web. This article reports use of stratified selection methodology that allows the user to choose the domain of interest. The size of the stratified selection can be chosen to be between 1 and 10% of the total collection size. The user can choose the selection algorithms based on either the proportional or logarithmic sampling strategy. The system selects a minimum of one entry per group to ensure the representation of small groups. This approach provides the users with more focused selection of the germplasm with the diversity of the trait of interest than core collections. Furthermore, it shows how the current developments in the information and communication technology can be used to improve utilization of plant genetic resources.

By V. Mahalakshmi  T.J.L. van Hintum  R. Ortiz  

published on No.136, in English
Page 14 to 22

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English
Collecting plant genetic resources in Italy, 2001
In August/September, 2001 a collecting mission in north Italy and Sardinia was carried out within the framework of an agreement started in 1980 between the Germplasm Institute (IG) of Bari ( Italy ) and the Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung (IPK) of Gatersleben ( Germany ). One hundred and twenty-two accessions belonging to 55 species were gathered, mainly cereals, pulses and vegetables landraces. The material is being deposited in the gene banks of the IG and IPK. For each one of the 35 collecting sites data and notes on their past and present agricultural situation are given, together with a discussion on their degree of crop genetic erosion. Almost everywhere strong crop genetic erosion was recorded for all the local varieties, together with a general abandonment of agriculture. Nevertheless, north Italy is still rich in plant genetic resources, especially in mountainous zones (e.g. Carnia). Therefore, further expeditions are planned in this area over the coming years.

By S. Cifarelli  G. Laghetti  P. Perrino  S. Bullitta  K. Hammer  

published on No.136, in English
Page 23 to 30

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English
Susceptibility of Jordanian tomato landraces to tomato yellow leaf curl virus
Forty-nine accessions of tomato landraces collected from local farmers during the period 1983–1995 were evaluated for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) susceptibility during the 2001/2002 season. Forty-five-day-old seedlings were subjected to field infection with Bemisia tabaci, the natural vector of TYLCV. A disease severity scale from zero (no visible TYLCV symptoms) to four (severe symptoms) was used to determine TYLCV susceptibility. Fruits were harvested several times to determine total yield, average fruit number per plant, average fruit weight, fruit shape and size. The results showed that accessions 971b, 951, 952, 989 and 968 had no visible TYLCV symptoms with fruit yields ranging from 39.5 to 45.1 t/ha. Yields of five other accessions (979, 981, 991a, 976 and 975) ranged from 52 to 59 t/ha with slight TYLCV symptoms, indicating good source for further TYLCV resistance studies.

By M.M. Qaryouti  O.M. Hurani  A.Y. Mahadeen  

published on No.136, in English
Page 31 to 33

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English
Population studies for the evaluation of germplasm and threat status of the alpine medicinal herb, Nardostachys jatamansi
Population ecology, morphological variation, germination potential and threat status of Nardostachys jatamansi were studied in Garhwal Himalaya. Habitat and native populations were analysed for the occurrence, distribution and status of the species. On the basis of phytosociological analysis, density and relative dominance were found to be very poor when compared with other alpine species. Observations on the extent of occurrence and population estimates of the species showed its endangered and vulnerable status in different locations. In general, the species was determined as vulnerable for Garhwal Himalaya. Morphological and environmental features that have a bearing on belowground biomass were identified. The medicinally useful plant part (underground rhizome) exhibited a significant relationship with plant density, plant height, and soil organic carbon and nitrogen content. On the basis of availability, superiority of morphological characters, yield per unit area, and presence of essential oil content, the Tungnath site (NJ3) was found to be suitable for collecting and multiplying germplasm for future conservation and cultivation. In general, germplasm collected from moist rocky habitats having higher carbon and nitrogen content was considered superior.

By B.P. Nautiyal  R.S. Chauhan  V. Prakash  H. Purohit  M.C. Nautiyal  

published on No.136, in English
Page 34 to 39

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English
Explorations within India for collection of cotton species germplasm
To widen the genetic base for further improvement, it is necessary to collect, characterize, evaluate and conserve plant biodiversity, particularly wild relatives of species and underutilized crop plants. In this paper, the details of cotton germplasm material collected by the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) in collaboration with the National Bureau for Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) during the period 1999–2002 is presented and its utility is discussed. The regions explored were Malwa, Meghalaya, Melghat, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat . The total number of accessions collected amounted to 254 including Gossypiumarboreum races, G.hirsutum and G. herbaceum, with perennials and landraces. The major achievements of these collections are represented by the acquisition of additional variability for different traits such as high ginning out-turn, good boll bearing, high yield type, large boll size and high locule retention capacity. These have added considerable diversity and variability to the national gene pool of diploid cotton

By V. V. Singh  V. N. Kulkarni  S.J. Baitule  P. Mohan  B.R. Pathak  

published on No.136, in English
Page 40 to 46

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English
Effect of provenance variation on seed and seedling characteristics of Grewia oppositifolia Roxb.: a promising agroforestry tree-crop of Central Himalaya , India
This study presents the results of an analysis of seed and seedling characteristics of Grewia oppositifolia as influenced by seed source. The study revealed that there was considerable morphological and physiological variation between provenances for percent of sound seed (PSS), seed weight (SWT), speed of germination (SG), time to complete germination (TCG) and percent germination in the nursery (PGN). Further important differences in average plant height, growth and various other seedling attributes were found among the seed sources. Among the various provenances, Chilledi, Chham and Malsi produced taller and heavier seedlings compared with those from the other sources. Thus, these populations can provide quality seedlings for farming under existing agroforestry systems in Central Himalaya, India. Among the variability estimates of seed traits, seed weight showed high genotypic variance and genotypic coefficient of variation accompanied by high heritability and considerable amount of genetic gain. Nursery traits also exhibited large ranges in variation. Germination, survival, plant height and root–shoot length showed more genetic variance and genotypic coefficient of variation in addition to heritability and genetic gain, indicating that these parameters were under genetic control. However, germination and plant height were also influenced strongly by environment. These characters that showed greater genetic influence can be directly screened/selected for the improvement of this potential tree-crop.

By A. K. Uniyal  B.P. Bhatt  N.P. Todaria  

published on No.136, in English
Page 47 to 53

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English
Monitoring of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) seed viability after a decade of storage in the National Gene Bank of China
Monitoring of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) seed viability after a decade of storage in the National Gene Bank of China

After 10 years of storage in the National Gene Bank of China (NGBC), more than 90% of the 3300 monitored accessions of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) seeds maintained a germination percentage above 85%, the lowest initial viability standard for sorghum seeds when put into a low temperature genebank. The germination percentage of 33 accessions, accounting for 1.00% of the total, declined significantly from above 85% to below 75%. The decline of seed viability between different suppliers and different years was significa

By Xin-xiong Lu  Xiao-ling Chen  Cong-shu Cui  Hui Chen  Hongfeng Wang  

published on No.136, in English
Page 54 to 57

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English
The status of Cola germplasm and its conservation in Nigeria
At the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), efforts have been ongoing since the 1960s to establish a wide genetic base for Colanitida and Colaacuminata as a first step towards improving their productivity through the use of an appropriate breeding programme. Consequently, exploration and a systematic selection exercise was carried out from the large number of kola populations in the country, based mainly on yield and various nut characteristics. The exercise has given rise to a total of 74 C. nitida accessions currently being maintained in our various field genebanks. Other collections include five species of wild Cola materials and 710 accessions of C. acuminata. The problems facing the germplasm conserved in the various field genebanks are highlighted.

By P.O. Adebola  K. Badaru  

published on No.136, in English
Page 58 to 60

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English
Sub-optimal temperatures affect Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena true potato seed germination
Tubers of several native unknown clones of Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena were collected at high elevation in Peru during 1999. Four of these clones (LTA5, LTA9, LTA10 and LTA12) formed berries. Seeds were extracted and germinated in Petri dishes at various temperatures (22, 12, 10, 8, 6 or 4°C). Seed germination at 4°C was completely inhibited in all progenies. For all progenies, germination at 22°C was above 95% and was completed in about 5 days. Exposing seeds to constant temperatures of 12, 10 and 8°C slightly reduced the percentage germination of LTA10 and LTA12 progenies, whereas it had a detrimental effect on LTA5 and LTA9 progenies. At 6°C, progenies from LTA10 and LTA12 were less sensitive to sub-optimal germination temperature than those from LTA5 and LTA9 as they had a percentage germination (38.5 and 30%, respectively) significantly higher than those from LTA5 and LTA9 (2.6%). The data indicate possible genetic variations for cold tolerance at the germination stage in S. tuberosum subsp. andigena.

By G. Iapichino  G. Incalcaterra  

published on No.136, in English
Page 61 to 63

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Singh et al. describe cotton species germplasm collecting in India (pp. 40-46). Samples of Gossypium herbaceum (shown), selected for salt tolerance, werecollected from coastal Saurashtra, in Gujurat during 2002.


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