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Sections > Latest issue > No.

English
Investigating the effects of low input drying procedures on maize (Zea mays L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seed quality in Benin

Four drying regimes (sun, shade, silica gel and conventional drying room) were compared using seeds of Zea mays L. (cv. DMR-ESR-W), Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cv. NI 86-650-3) and Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (local white variety). The seeds were harvested before mass maturity, at mass maturity and after mass maturity. Moisture contents of seeds were measured on wet basis according to ISTA rules and seed viability was determined through germination tests before and after drying. Silica gel allowed the lowest moisture content to be attained in all three species when seeds were harvested at mass maturity: Zea mays (7–5%), Vigna unguiculata (3–2%) and Vigna subterranea (8%). Sun drying as a low-cost alternative also allowed low moisture contents to be reached: 3.9–7.8% for maize, 3.2–5.1% for cowpea and 8.4–9.6% for bambara groundnut. For all drying regimes, most of the seed samples germinated well, with a mean time to germination between 3 and 5 days for all the crops studied.

By F. Engelmann  Achigan Dako Enoch  Vodouhe Sognon  Ehsan M. Dulloo  

published on No.140, in English
Page 1 to 8

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English
The contribution of Prunus webbii to almond evolution

A Spanish population of Prunus webbii, first mentioned in 1977, shows great variation for morphological traits, pointing to the possibility of hybridization with cultivated almond. Most forms are self-compatible. Self-compatibility in P. webbii must be allelic with that of almond, as shown by the study of its transmission to hybrid seedlings, suggesting that self-compatibility in almond could be due to hybridization with P. webbii.

By Ben Salah Mohamed  

published on No.140, in English
Page 9 to 13

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English
Utilization of Pakistani apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) germplasm for improving Brix levels in California adapted apricots

A 1988 plant collection expedition to the northern regions of Pakistan led to the introduction of 53 Prunus armeniaca L. seedlots into the United States. Portions of these seedlots were distributed to interested breeders. These Pakistani apricots are characterized as having extremely high Brix when compared with adapted apricot germplasm typical of that utilized in California. Thirty seedling families from portions of the 53 seedlots were established in a research orchard in Fresno, CA, USA for evaluation and potential breeding purposes. This original Pakistani apricot germplasm was not well adapted to the environment of central California. While only a minority of the seedling trees ever produced fruit, some of the seedlings did have extraordinarily high Brix levels as compared with California adapted apricot germplasm. Numerous hybridizations were performed between fecund Pakistani seedlings and apricot accessions adapted to the California environment in an attempt to transfer the elevated Brix to California adapted apricots. First generation seedlings were very productive in fruit yield, and were intermediate between their parents for many evaluated characters. Many hundreds of second generation seedlings have now been produced from open pollination, and from backcrossing to California adapted apricots. Evaluations of the F2 trees for fruit quality characteristics are ongoing, and further breeding efforts are warranted based on collected data. The elevated Brix characteristic present in the original Pakistani apricot seedlings has been successfully identified and selected in the F2. Utilization of the Pakistani apricot germplasm in a breeding programme with California adapted apricots will lead to enhanced quality in newly developed varieties.

By Craig A. Ledbetter  Sharon J. Peterson  

published on No.140, in English
Page 14 to 22

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English
Characterization and analysis of a collection of Avena sativa L. from Uruguay

Oat production in Uruguay has traditionally been based on the use of landraces. These contain important genetic variability that is of great value for breeding. This variability must be accompanied by characterization and agronomic evaluation data to be of real use. The objective of this research was to characterize and analyze a 120-accession Avena sativa L. collection that is kept at INIA ‘La Estanzuela’ (Uruguay). The collection is represented by four groups of accessions: (a) old varieties from the region that had been conserved in NPGS/USDA; (b) modern breeding lines from the Quaker Oats Evaluation Network Collection; (c) selections for differential resistance to leaf rust from two traditional cultivars; (d) landraces collected from farmers’ fields. A total of 20 traits (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) were determined during the vegetative, reproductive and maturity stages, and analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The traits that showed the greatest discrimination ability between groups were number of tillers, leaf width and grain yield. Significant morphological and physiological differences among the four groups were observed, particularly between the farmer varieties and modern lines. These two groups of accessions represent two different ta xa of the species Avena sativa L. (byzantina and sativa types, respectively). These groups have also experienced differential evolutionary pressures: the former have been highly affected by natural selection driven by farmers’ practices, such as intensive grazing, whereas the latter are the result of conventional breeding programmes aimed at improving grain yield.

By Mariana Vilaró  Mónica Rebuffo  Carolina Miranda  Clara Pritsch  Tabaré Abadie  

published on No.140, in English
Page 23 to 31

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English
Collection of wild Phaseolus spp. in the northeast and Andean region of Venezuela

In order to rescue and preserve landraces of Phaseolus, we carried out two collection expeditions in the east region, Sucre, the north of Monagas state, the Andean region, Mérida, and the northwest of Barinas State of Venezuela. In the east, 51 samples of caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and 14 of tapiramo (P. lunatus L.) were collected; and in the Andean area, 107 samples of caraota, two of tapiramo and three herbarium samples of wild Phaseolus were collected. The collected materials were characterized using nine seed descriptors. An analysis of upward hierarchical classification using X2 distance and the Moment of Second Order, aggregation approach was carried out. Six groups of accessions that were characterized by colour, size and seed form were identified. Group I included 18 black accessions, with truncated and small seeds; group II comprised 60 black, small accessions of round, oval and cubic form seeds, with the majority opaque. Group III comprised 22 white accessions, of diverse seed forms and with a greater proportion of medium and large seeds. Group IV comprised 17 accessions of diverse colours and medium to large seeds. Group V comprised 24 purple accessions (red–purple) without any secondary colour, and with round and oval, very large seeds. Group VI comprised red, purple, brown and black seeds, of medium to large size, which were kidney form, truncated and some oval. Phenotypic analysis allowed identification of similarities between the black and small groups and their differences with the coloured groups of medium and large seeds. Results indicated that the cultivated and widely consumed black accessions from Venezuela originate in the Mesoamerican group, and accessions preferred in the domestic Andean areas are from the Andean group.

By Víctor Segovia  Margaret Gutiérrez M.  Delis M. Pérez S.  Alexis Márques  Carlos Marín  

published on No.140, in English
Page 32 to 41

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English
Specialty native rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm of Uttara Kannada, India

For a long period time, the farmers of Uttara Kannada district in India have been cultivating native rice varieties adapted to specific growing situations. Unfortunately, the existence of this valuable diversity is now threatened by increasing habitat loss and the introduction of modern varieties. In this study an attempt was made to collect, evaluate and conserve this germplasm. The collection of 92 accessions (including 86 landraces and 6 cultivars) indicated considerable variability for growth and grain characters. Indigenous knowledge from the farmers of such accessions revealed an array of specialty uses.

By R.S. Bhat  M.V.C. Gowda  

published on No.140, in English
Page 42 to 47

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English
Polygene inheritance of latex yield in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

One-hundred-and-thirty hybrids of Hevea brasiliensis were evaluated for polygene inheritance of latex yield. The hybrids were cloned by budding and evaluated in field trials. Clonal latex yield in grams per tree per tapping (g t–1 t–1) was evaluated in four years. Log10 transformation of clonal g t–1 t–1 was performed. The transformed clonal g t–1 t–1 in each year and cumulative mean were tested for conformity with phenotypic distribution of 5, 7, 9 and 11 classes corresponding to 2, 3, 4 and 5 segregating polygenes, respectively. There was consistent agreement between observed and expected phenotypic distributions for nine phenotypic classes. This means that four polygenes control the inheritance of latex yield in H. brasiliensis. Selection of hybrids of H. brasiliensis for all the dominant genes responsible for high latex yield will therefore require a proportion of one out of 256 in a pool of hybrids. This will ensure that all the selected hybrids are free of any recessive alleles for latex yield.

By Kenneth Ohi Omokhafe  Ibrahim Nasiru  

published on No.140, in English
Page 48 to 50

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English
Ornamental plants in home gardens (conucos) of three regions of Cuba

A study about the presence and diversity of ornamental plants in home gardens (conucos), from three regions of Cuba (13 western, 12 central and 13 eastern), was carried out. This investigation is a part of the global project ‘Contribution of home gardens to the in situ conservation of phytogenetic resources in traditional agriculture systems’. Home gardens constitute an excellent reserve of ornamental species. In the floristic richness present in their gardens, not only is the interspecific variability remarkable (shown by the presence of 229 taxa—3 of which are endemic—grouped in 169 genera from 73 families), but also the existence of 36 species with one or more infraspecific categories. These species originate from many regions throughout the world. The floristic composition and the principal characteristics of Cuban conucos were also recorded: variable dimensions; informal spatial distribution of species; predominance of perennial species; use of living fences; use of different designs of pots; presence of ‘magic’ plants and other economic species; and the role of women in plant growing.

By Leonor Castiñeiras Alfonso  Tomás Shagarodsky Scull  Zoila Fundora Mayor  José Luis Alonso Lanza  Víctor R. Fuentes Fiallo  Raúl Cristóbal Suárez  Pedro Sánchez  Odalys Barrios  Victoria Moreno Formental  Lianne Fernández  Rosa Orellana Gallego  Vicente González Areu  Maritza García  Celerina Giraudy  Araceli Valiente  Fidel Hernandez  

published on No.140, in English
Page 51 to 56

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English
Diversity in Saccharum germplasm in Arunachal Pradesh, India

Saccharum germplasm was collected in Lohit and Changlang Districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India, in November 2000. Different morphotypes of S. spontaneum were found in Lohit District. The dwarf and medium–tall forms were mostly present in riverbeds and on the lower plains, while tall forms were growing on elevated slopes and along forest margins. The tall, thick forms of S. spontaneum, growing to over 5 m in height, were particularly interesting. Some were sweet and juicy. S. spontaneum present at higher elevations at Hawa Camp, Udayak Pass and Lalpani showed excellent growth characteristics despite extremely cold conditions and could be a potential source of cold tolerance genes for introgression into cultivated sugarcane. The area from Hawa Pass to Nara in Lohit District is the major area of genetic diversity for S. spontaneum in the India. The tall, thick forms of S. spontaneum present in Lohit represent a distinct class of S. spontaneum. The thick, sweet and juicy forms of S. spontaneum present in the area possibly represent intermediate stages in the evolution from wild to cultivated forms. Seventy-five clones of S. spontaneum and Erianthus spp. were collected from the two districts during this survey.

By N.V. Nair  M. Vigneswaran  

published on No.140, in English
Page 57 to 61

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English
Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Volume 2, Vegetables

By Jonathan Robinson  

published on No.140, in English
Page 62 to 62

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English
19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, 15–19 July 2005

published on No.140, in English
Page 63 to 63

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English
46th Annual Meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, 5–9 June 2005

published on No.140, in English
Page 63 to 63

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Rice (Oryza sativa) planting in India. Bhat and Gowda (pp. 42–47) report the importance of traditional knowledge in conserving genetic diversity in rice. Photo: IPGRI.


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