Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Management Concepts and Approaches













Table of Contents


Edited by

R.S. PARODA
Dy. Director General (Crop Sciences)
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi - 110 001, India

R.K. ARORA
Associate Coordinator (for South Asia)
International Board for Plant Genetic Resources
c/o NBPGR, Pusa Campus, New Delhi -110 012, India


International Board for Plant Genetic Resources
Regional Office for South and Southeast Asia
New Delhi

© 1991 Editors

Published by the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources,
Regional Office for South and Southeast Asia, c/o NBPGR,
Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110 012, India

Cover Photo: A hypothetical model showing the complementary use of different conservation technologies - (Ref. Lyndsey A. Withers' article).

Copies available from
IBPGR Regional Office, New Delhi

Printed in India by
Malhotra Publishing House,
A 38/3, Mayapuri, Phase I, New Delhi 110 064


Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

Contributors

Abbreviations

1. Plant Genetic Resources: General Perspective - R.S. Paroda and R.K. Arora

Introduction
Change from nomadic life to settled agriculture
Dynamics of plant domestication
Regions of crop plant diversity

Nuclear centres and regions of diversity

Megagene centres
Centres and non-centres

Spectrum of genetic resources
Value of crop plant diversity
Threat to genetic diversity
Conservation of genetic diversity

Conservation systems/programmes

Summary
References
Appendix I. World centres of diversity of cultivated plants (Hawkes, 1983)
Appendix II. Cultivated plants and their regions of diversity (refer Fig. 3)

2. Plant Diversity in the Indian Gene Centre - R.K. Arora

Introduction
Antiquity of Indian agriculture
Indian subcontinent as gene centre

Genetic diversity and its distribution
Extent of prevalent diversity

Crop plants
Wild relatives

Diversity in other economic plants

Medicinal and aromatic plants
Forest trees
Wild forage plants
Native ornamental plants

Summary
References
Appendix I (a). Crops and areas where rich diversity in landraces and primitive cultivars occurs (Mehra and Arora, 1982; with additions by the author)
Appendix I (b). Rice varieties from Kerala with useful genes (Khoshoo, 1986)
Appendix II (a). Distribution of important wild relatives and related types in different phyto-geographical zones (Arora and Nayar, 1984)
Appendix II (b). Wild relatives and related endemic and/or rare species including endemic cultigens (Arora and Nayar, 1984)

3. Plant Exploration and Germplasm Collection - R.K. Arora

Introduction
Plant exploration and germplasm collection

Plant genetic resources collecting

Priority regions and crops
Germplasm collecting: Logistics and tactics

Technical aspects
Logistic preparation/Implementation
Practical guidelines

Genepool sampling

Sampling strategy
Sampling frequency and size
Collecting sites/sources

Collecting wild relatives of crop species
Field data recording
Germplasm collecting strategies: salient points
Other considerations

Depletion of genetic resources
Reassessment of collection priorities
Ecogeographical surveys
In-vitro germplasm collection techniques

Future emphasis/requirements
Summary
References
Appendix I (a). Passport data sheet used by the NBPGR, New Delhi (adapted from FAO/IBPGR form)
Appendix I (b). Example of general collecting form (Hawkes, 1983)
Appendix II. Field collection form recommended by the IBPGR and adapted for use in rice (IRRI-IBPGR, 1983)

4. Plant Introduction and Exchange - B.P. Singh

Introduction
Historical perspective
National plant introduction and exchange service
Import of plant genetic resources

Import regulations

Plant introduction and quarantine agencies in India
Procedure for exchange of germplasm

Import
Export

Introduction of plant genetic resources
Export of plant genetic resources

Collections of materials for export
Quarantine inspection of material for export and mode of transmittal

Inland supplies of plant genetic resources and related information
Documentation and dissemination of information on introduced germplasm
National policy in germplasm exchange
Summary
References
Appendix I. Some promising primary and secondary introductions

5. Plant Quarantine - Ram Nath

Introduction
Plant quarantine as a national service
Complementary role of plant quarantine
Pest/pathogen detection techniques

Generalized tests
Specialized tests

Salvaging of infested/infected material

Fumigation
Heat treatment
Chemical treatments
Tissue culture

Examination of pest/pathogen risk in plant introduction
Quarantine regulations
Plant quarantine system in India
NBPGR's responsibilities
National coordination
International/regional cooperation
General considerations
Summary
References
Appendix I. Important pathogens and pests intercepted on introduced seeds/planting materials at NBPGR*

6. Germplasm Evaluation and Utilisation - T.A. Thomas and P.N. Mathur

Introduction
Components of germplasm evaluation

Seed increase
Preparation of descriptor list

Passport data
Characterization
Preliminary evaluation
Further characterization and evaluation

Types of characters and measurement data

Some practical considerations
Information management of evaluation data
Recent concepts related to utilisation

Concept of core collection
Concept of pre-breeding

NBPGR's coordinating role
Germplasm utilisation

Cereals and millets
Pulses
Vegetables
Fruits
Plantation crops
Fibre crops
Medicinal plants
Oilseeds
Forage crops

Summary
References

7. Genetic Improvement: Achievements in Crop Sciences - R.S. Paroda

Introduction
Research support and co-ordination
Crop improvement: National perspective

Cereals and millets
Pulse crops
Forage crops
Commercial/Industrial crops

Summary
References

8. Under-utilised Plant Resources - Bhag Mal and Vandana Joshi

Introduction
Wealth of less Known plants
Life support species
National coordinated programme

Food plants
Fodder plants
Energy plantation crops
Hydrocarbon and industrial plants
Other potential plants

Conservation of minor crop plants
Future considerations
Summary
References

9. Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources - P.P. Khanna and Neeta Singh

Introduction
Conservation perspective - In-situ and Ex-situ

Ex-situ conservation

Concept of base and active collections
Long-Term and short-term storage of field crops
Conservation needs: Physiological and allied requirements
Genebank management

Management of facility
Management of collections
Management of information

Summary
References

10. Plant Genetic Resources Conservation: Recent Approaches - K.P.S. Chandel and Ruchira Pandey

Introduction
Recent conservation approaches - The need
In-vitro conservation

Slow growth

Cryopreservation of in-vitro cultures

Examples of successful cryopreservation
Preservation of embryos
Clonal plantlets and seedlings
Mature plant pieces
Freeze preservation of pollen

Cryopreservation of Seeds

Orthodox seeds
Recalcitrant seeds

New conservation strategies - Indian scenario
Future perspectives
Summary
References

11. Biotechnology and Plant Genetic Resources Conservation - Lyndsey A. Withers

Introduction
In-vitro conservation: Foundation technologies
In-vitro collecting
In-vitro storage: Principles, successes and continuing challenges
In-vitro conservation of key crops
Complementary conservation strategies
Summary
References

12. Biosphere Reserves and in-situ Conservation - R.K. Arora and R.S. Paroda

Introduction
Choice of conservation strategies

In-situ conservation

Biosphere reserves concept

Global concern
Basic structure of biosphere reserves
National committment/perspective
Identification of biosphere reserves
Support-data for research and management

Wild relatives of crop plants
Research needs vis-à-vis priorities

Ecology and biology of plant resources
Evolutionary studies
Location specific problems on vegetation stability
Process of eco-development

Resource management in the biosphere reserve
General considerations
Summary
References

13. Documentation of Plant Genetic Resources - R.L. Sapra

Introduction
Information systems
Data Base Management Systems (DBMS) and models
Databases, descriptors and descriptor states

Information types

Standards for data preparation
Documentation: PGR national efforts

Plant introduction reporters and crop inventories
Quarantine information, check lists, etc.
Passport information
Herbarium information
Field evaluation and cataloguing
Genebank information
Other published information
Trainings on documentation and information management

Future considerations
Summary
References
Appendix I. List of catalogues published by NBPGR

14. Indian National Plant Genetic Resources System - An Overview - R.S. Rana and R.K. Arora

Introduction
Brief history
NBGPR and its activities

Prioritizing PGR activities

Indian Plant Genetic Resources System (IN-PGRS)
Partnership in PGR conservation and management
Recent developments
In retrospect
Summary
References
Appendix I. Indian Plant Genetic Resources System. Directory of National Active Germplasm Sites (NAGS).

15. Plant Genetic Resources Activities: International Perspective - R.K Arora, R.S. Paroda and J.M.M. Engels

Introduction
CGIAR
IARCs
IBPGR and its activities

Global network of base collections
Crop genetic resources networks
Integrated conservation strategies

PGR data management

Central crop databases

FAO and plant genetic resources activities

FAO commission on plant genetic resources
International agreements/code of conduct

FAO/IBPGR/IARCs collaboration
Other international/regional organisations
Biodiversity

Botanic gardens and plant genetic resources conservation

Developments in biotechnology
General considerations
Summary
References
Appendix I (a). Base collections of seed crops, which accepted responsibility for long-term conservation (IBPGR Annual Report, 1989)
Appendix I (b). Field genebanks (active collections for vegetative material) which have accepted responsibility for conservation (IBPGR Annual Report, 1989)