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Southeast Asia


Coconut breeding programme in Indonesia
Coconut breeding programme of the Philippines
Coconut breeding programme in Thailand
Coconut breeding programme of Vietnam

Coconut breeding programme in Indonesia

Novarianto Hengky1, Tine Rompas1 and S.N. Darwis2

1 Head and Scientist of Coconut Breeding Division, RICP, Manado, Indonesia
2 Senior Scientist, Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops, Bogor, Indonesia
Introduction

Coconut is a strategic commodity not only because of its economic value but also in terms of its social and cultural importance in Indonesia. In 1992, the coconut area amounted to 3.4 million ha or one-third of the world's total. About 98% of the total area are predominantly in the hand of small-scale farmers. Such cultivation involved about 3.2 million farm families. Although Indonesia is the largest coconut producer in the world, the current condition of the national coconut industry is not satisfactory, especially in terms of exports, productivity and farmers' income.

The low productivity of palms was attributed to the following conditions: (1) the existing coconut areas consist of about 53% senile palms (more than 50 years old) of mixed varieties; (2) growth environment, i.e. land and climate are not very suitable; (3) coconut plantations were not managed intensively, with no fertilization; and (4) pests and disease problems. These limiting factors were compounded by the poor physical and chemical properties of the local coconut hybrid meat products (e.g. desiccated coconut) compared with tall varieties.

In this context, the Coconut Breeding Programme under the Research Institute for Coconut and Palme (RICP) was established to solve the coconut problems and lead Indonesia towards coconut industrialization. The programme will survey coconut germplasm resources in several parts of the country, including swampy and drought areas, to identify germplasm for collecting, selection and hybridization. General trials will be conducted to determine and release coconut hybrids with high copra yield, early bearing, suitable for swampy or drought area, resistant to bud rot and nut fall diseases, low input, and good raw material for food and industry products.

Area and production of coconut

The development of coconut area and intensification of production began intensively at the end of the third and fourth Five-year Development National Plan (PELITA III and IV) and during the fifth National Five-year Plan (PELITA V) (Table 1).

As indicated in Table 1, the area of mature coconut increased by 1.84% per year for the period 1983-92. Within the same period, the total area of coconut and copra production also went up by 1.4%, and 2.9% per year, respectively. At the national level, the average yield of coconut for PELITA III (1979-83), PELITA IV (1984-88) and PELITA V (1989-92) were: 0.84, 0.99 and 1.03 t copra/ha/year, respectively. Small coconut farms (about two hectares) were common. It was estimated that net income per hectare of coconut farm was about US$240, assuming the yield of copra per hectare was 1.03 t, and price of copra was US$0.23 per kg. More than 50% of coconut farm was monocultured. On the other hand, the estimated productivity of coconut in a well-managed farm was about 2-3 t and 3-5 t copra/ha/year for tall and hybrid, respectively. Computed net income was about US$ 460-$ 1150 per hectare.

Coconut germplasm

The history of coconut germplasm survey in Indonesia

The research on coconut palms was given considerable attention during the Dutch colonial period. The initial research activity was institutionally conducted in 1911. This involved collection of some coconut ecotypes in surrounding areas of Java.

In 1900, Sexava sp. and Aspidiotus sp. attacked coconut palms in Sangihe Talaud Island (North Sulawesi) and in North Maluku. They caused considerable damaged to coconut. This led Dr P.L.M. Tammes, a Dutch agronomist, and his colleagues to conduct a study on these pests which was the first coconut research activity in Indonesia. In 1926-27, Dr Tammes selected tall coconut population around Mapanget district (North Sulawesi) and collected 100 high yielding palms which were planted at the Mapanget Experimental Garden.

After the Independence of Indonesia (1945), coconut research activities were continued by the Government. In 1956-61, Indonesia invited Diplm. Ing. A. F. Ihne, a German breeder who was an FAO expert, to characterize, select and hybridize the coconut germplasm collected by Dr Tammes.

From 1973 onwards, the staff of the Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops and its regional institutes, conducted several surveys in selected areas of 11 provinces of Indonesia under the guidance of D.V. Liyanage, a UNDP/FAO coconut breeder (Liyanage 1974). The main objectives of the survey were to identify suitable forms of coconut palms to be planted in a seedgarden and to select desirable types for the breeding programme. Collections were planted at the Mapanget Experimental Garden. Surveys are being continued by the staff of the Coconut Research Institute. Some of the recent collections have been planted at the research farm located at Pakuwon, West Java.

In late 1980, the National Germplasm Conservation Commission encouraged the RICP at Manado to intensify their exploration work by providing some financial assistance obtained from the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (the then International Board for Plant Genetic Resources). Until 1987, about 50 accessions from various parts of Indonesia were collected and planted at the Bone-Bone Experimental Garden, South Sulawesi (Novarianto, Rompas and Luntungan 1988).

Present status

At present, the RICP has collected 96 accessions, but 14 accessions are duplication of Mapanget and Pakuwon germplasm. They were planted at three experimental gardens. Some of them have been screened for their potential as parent material in hybridization programmes, especially the collection at Mapanget. The details on accessions collected are given in Table 2.

All collected germplasm has been conserved in field genebanks. This conservation strategy was found to be very expensive, especially the field maintenance. For example, the Bone-Bone experimental garden had initially collected about 50 ecotypes, and 10 years later, the ecotypes increased to 35 (Table 2). In future, the RICP will consider zygotic embryo technology to exchange with an other country. The RICP at Mapanget has set up an in vitro embryo culture laboratory in collaboration with COGENT. Cryopreservation technology is also being considered as a future alternative to conserving the coconut germplasm in the country.

Utilization

Characterization of germplasm accessions had been done intensively at the Mapanget experimental garden as a component activity of the coconut improvement programme in Indonesia. Germplasm characterization included vegetative and generative traits, nut components, oil content of copra, protein content in meat, fatty acid composition in oil and resistance to bud rot and nut fall. About 15 coconut ecotypes were used in the hybridization programme.

Coconut genetic erosion in Indonesia was mainly caused by the replanting and rejuvenation of coconut areas. For these programmes, the Government used mostly coconut hybrid PB121 to cover about 300 000 ha in 1993. Planting of local coconut hybrid KHINA-1 (Nias Yellow Dwarf or GKN × Tenga Tall or DTA) covered about 20 000 ha. The distribution of this hybrid was concentrated in several major coconut producing provinces. Other causes of genetic erosion were crop shifting especially on farm with senile palms, pests and diseases, and in areas with various development projects.

New dwarf and tall ecotypes from local and foreign sources are being introduced to increase the genetic variability in the present collection. Future priorities for collecting and conservation are coconut ecotypes from tidal swampy and drought areas. Utilization of a coconut germplasm depends on its having the following characteristics: high copra yield, early bearing, suitable to swampy or drought areas, resistant to bud rot and nut fall diseases, high yield with low input requirement and good raw material for food and industrial products.

Coconut development in Indonesia

Most of the coconut grown in the country are tall types. About 98% have been cultivated by smallholders and the rest by government and private organizations. For replanting and rejuvenation, farmers usually select seednut from their garden. High yield blocks of tall coconut were selected beginning 1970 to increase the production of copra. Some known coconut ecotypes with high copra yield were Mapanget, Tenga, Bali, Palu, Sawarna, Riau, Igo Daku, and other local tails.

In 1975, the Government introduced coconut hybrid PB 121 from Ivory Coast. PB 121 was distributed to the farmers through the SCDP (Smallholder Coconut Development Project). Every farmer had a 2-ha supervised farm under the SCDP until five years after planting. In 1984, the Government released coconut hybrids KHINA-1 (GKN × Tenga Tall or DTA), KHINA-2 (GKN × Bali Tall or DBI) and KHINA-3 (GKN × Palu Tall or DPU). Tall × Tall hybrids were also released, namely: KB-1 (32 × 32), KB-2 (32 × 2), KB-3 (32 × 83) and KB-4 (32 × 99). These local hybrids, especially KHINA-1, are now planted on a small scale by farmers and private growers.

Dwarf types were not commonly planted in large areas. Nias Yellow Dwarf (GKN) was traditionally used as a female parent in seedgarden. In 1993, GKN was planted in 1856 ha with a production potency of about 16 million seednuts (Table 3).

After 20 years, the coconut hybrids planted have yet to meet expected yield. Harsh environmental factors caused the poor performance of coconut hybrids in terms of yield. It was also found that coconut hybrids required high input. Hence, most farmers disliked planting hybrids and preferred local tall coconut.

Breeding programme

In 1970, the Government paid more attention to coconut replanting and rejuvenation after noting the significant decrease in copra export. Seedlings were produced by mass selection from high yielding blocks of tall coconut.

Indonesia urgently needs large quantities of improved coconut planting materials for its development programmes (Table 4). In the breeding programme, priority was given for mass production of preferred varieties using known technology. Hence, the breeding programme has two components, a short term and a long term programme, with priority given to the farmers' selection. The short term programme is geared to solving the problems currently besetting the coconut industry, especially in producing improved seed. The seednut production of dwarf × tall on a large scale in seedgardens is of utmost importance. The long term programme aims at improving planting material further which is being carried out simultaneously with the short term programme. Basic information and material required for the former are taken from the current germplasm collection.

A survey of coconut germplasm was carried out in selected areas of 11 provinces, i.e. Aceh, North Sumatera, Lampung, West Java, Central Java, Bali, Maluku, North Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, South Sulawesi and West Kalimantan. The palm populations were studied, fruit samples collected and a number of measurements recorded. The main objectives of the survey were:

a) to identify suitable farm sources of male and female parents for the coconut seedgardens; and
b) to select suitable farms for coconut hybridization.
Generally, 30 to 50 ripe fruits with brown epicarp were taken at random from heaps of coconut, depending on availability of fruits and transport facilities. Twenty five populations were studied - 3 dwarf types and 22 tall types (Liyanage 1974).

Out of the coconut samples collected, the first four best populations were selected. They were Nias Yellow Dwarf (GKN) from Nias Island (North Sumatera), Tenga Tall (DTA) from Tenga Village (North Sulawesi), Palu Tall (DPU) from Bangga Village (Central Sulawesi) and Bali Tall (DBI) from Pulukan Estate (Bali island).

The establishment of seedgardens to produce dwarf × tall seed was given high priority. The initial plan was to have three large seedgardens with a total area of 900 ha. The Government directed that there should be eight seedgardens distributed all over the country. Initially, seedgardens were established in three locations, at Paniki (North Sulawesi), Pakuwon (West Java) and Paya Gajah (Aceh), with 100 ha each. Planting materials for seedgardens are being derived from the Nias Yellow Dwarf and three tall types, i.e. Tenga, Bali and Palu (Table 5).

Main productivity problems and breeding objectives and strategies

Main productivity problems

In 1975, the Government had introduced coconut hybrid PB 121 from Port Bouet, Ivory Coast and established demonstration plots in five provinces. Copra production of this hybrid was reported at 5-6 t/ha/year. Until now there are about 300 000 PB 121 in Indonesia. However, production of copra in farmer fields varied due to agropedoclimatic differences, poor management, rubbery coconut meat not suitable for desiccated coconut (Djatmiko 1991), susceptibility to bud rot and nut fall caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Bennett, Roboth and Sitepu 1985); (Warokka and Mangindaan 1992), and drought (Tampake, Kuswara and Davis 1982). Bud rot and nut fall attacks were very serious problems limiting coconut productivity. These diseases were found among the coconut hybrid PB 121 developed by SCDP in six provinces covering an area of 7211 ha (AARD 1993).

This problem was compounded because the only two coconut cultivars currently planted were both susceptible to the diseases. Because of this, the CRI decided to produce more coconut hybrids which have the desired resistance and can adapt to broader conditions.

In March 1991, the Directorate General of Estate Crops conducted a survey of bud rot disease caused by Phytophthora sp. at four main coconut areas in selected West and East provinces. This collaborative survey with the Coconut Division Director of IRHO (Institut de Recherches pour les Huiles of Oléagineux) showed that most standing hybrids have bud rot disease. The degree of infestation for each coconut hybrid and cultivar are given in Table 6.

Hybrid PB 121 and coconut tall WAT were found to be more susceptible to bud rot. Cultivars PYT, RLT, DJP and DBI were more resistant to bud rot. The most resistant coconut hybrid was MYD × PYT. Bud rot was widespread in smallholder farms because they failed to eliminate the disease by not cutting the tree and burning the infested trees. In coconut area with high rainfall, the disease was more noticeable than in coconut area with more than three dry months per year.

In 1984, the Minister of Agriculture released three coconut hybrids of dwarf × tall, namely: KHINA-1 (Nias Yellow Dwarf × Tenga Tall), KHINA-2 (Nias Yellow Dwarf × Bali Tall) and KHINA-3 (Nias Yellow Dwarf × Palu Tall). These three hybrids can produce 4-5 t copra/ha/year. They flower in about three years after planting. At the same time, four tall × tall hybrids namely: KB-1, KB-2, KB-3 and KB-4 which can produce 4-4.5 t copra/ha/year (Balitka 1989) were also released. However, very little of these materials were distributed to the farmers because most of them dislike to replant or rejuvenate using hybrids due to past bad experience with coconut hybrids.

Breeding objectives

The main objective of the coconut breeding programme is to produce planting material on a large scale with the following characteristics:

· High yield of copra
· Early bearing of fruits
Due consideration shall also be given to the following traits with the ultimate goal of incorporating one or more of them into the genepool:
· High oil content of copra
· Resistance to bud rot and nut fall diseases
· High yield of copra per unit area with medium input
· Tolerant to tidal swampy area
· Tolerant to drought
· High content of lauric acid in oil
· High content of protein in meat
Breeding strategies

While in the past there was only one coconut hybrid (PB 121) used, the current breeding programme will develop several coconut hybrids with specific traits. The probability of finding several specific coconut hybrids is high because variability exists in the current germplasm collection. Some of the ecotypes with their specific traits are shown in Table 7. Most of these coconut ecotypes were used as parents in hybridization programmes using as much as possible local accessions because the introduced germplasm have certain adaptation constraints. Nevertheless, the exotic material MYD, MRD, WAT, PYT and RLT have been used in combining ability tests to determine the best parental combination with the local germplasm.

Breeding action and expected output

In the production of new strains, precocity for bearing is a must. The other desired characters as earlier identified, are considered in the hybridization strategy. The ultimate goal is to obtain the desired ideotypes. Currently six crosses are being evaluated - five dwarf × tall and one tall × tall (Table 8). All of these hybrids have been fertilized with medium input or 3 kg urea, TSP and KCl/palm/year.

Institutions involved in coconut breeding

RICP(Research Institute for Coconut and Palmae)
P.O. Box 1004
Manado 95001 (Indonesia)

CECRBK (Centre for Estate Crops Research Bandar Kuala)
P.O. Box 16 Galang-Sumut
Medan (Indonesia)

NGCC (National Germplasm Conservation Commission)
PUSLITBANG BIOLOGI LIPI
JL. Ir. Juanda 18
Bogor (Indonesia)

Funding agencies

· APBN (Government Budget of Indonesia)
· ARMP (Agricultural Management Project) from World Bank
· IPGRI/COGENT
Germplasm and other support needed
· Germplasm exchange with other coconut growing countries
· Establishment of 1200 ha genebank at Riau province
Conclusion

To increase the productivity of coconut palms, the Government of Indonesia had introduced coconut hybrids, besides high yielding tall coconut, for replanting and rejuvenation. However, production of copra from these hybrids had been lower than expected. One or two hybrid cultivars used were found to be disastrous because of varied agropedoclimate in Indonesia.

The RICP at Manado had collected 87 accessions from Indonesia and overseas. The evaluation of germplasm characteristics was a component activity of the coconut improvement programme in Indonesia. Selection and hybridization are continuously being conducted to produce several coconut hybrids which are high yielding and early bearing, with high oil content of copra, resistant to bud rot and nut fall diseases, low input requirement, tolerant to tidal swampy area and drought, and high content of lauric acid in oil and protein in meat.

References

AARD. 1993. Penelitian dan pengembangan perkelapaan di Indonesia. Pp. 1-10 in Kumpulan Bahan KNK III. Departemen Pertanian. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Balai Penelitian Kelapan, Manado.

Balitka. 1989. Coconut hybrids. DOK 018/1/1989. Research Institute for Coconut. Manado, Indonesia.

Bennett, CPA., O. Roboth and G. Sitepu. 1985. Aspect of the control of premature nutfall disease of coconut, Cocos nucifera L. caused by Phythopthora palmivora (Butler). Pp. 157-175 in Seminar Proteksi Proteksi Tanaman Kelapa. Bogor.

Djatmiko B.1991. Karakterisasi daging buah beberapa kultivar kelapa (Cocos nucifera L.). Jurnal Penelitian Kelapa. 5(1):12-16.

Liyanage, D.V. 1974. Survey of coconut germplasm in Indonesia. Document No. 1, LPTI, Bogor.

Novarianto, H., T. Rompas and H.T. Luntungan. 1988. Coconut genetic resources and improvement in Indonesia. FAO/RAS/80/032 project, Chumphon, Thailand.

Tampake, H., T. Kuswara and T.A. Davis. 1982. Coconut germplasm survey of Nusa Tenggara Timur Province: The initial step towards producing drought resistance in coconut strains. Ind. Agric. Dev. Journal 4 (2): 52-61.

Warokka, J.S. and H.F. Mangindaan. 1992. Penyakit busuk pucuk dan kerugian yang diakibatkannya. Buletin Balitka 16:48-51.

Table 1. Coconut area and production in Indonesia during the third, fourth, and fifth National Five-Year Plan

Year

Area (ha)

Total area
(ha)

Copra prod'n
(t)

Average copra prod'n
(t/ha)

Immature

Mature

Senile/
damage palms

The end of PELITA III

1983

884 915

1 922 659

205939

3 013 513

1 607 638

0.84

The end of PELITA IV

1988

873 183

2 121 660

230645

3 225 488

2 098 544

0.99

PELITA V







1989

869 960

2 170 005

221624

3 261 589

2 221 357

1.02

1990

904 016

2 261 563

228243

3 393 822

2 331 570

1.03

1991

905 525

2 267 876

221273

3 394 674

2 337 203

1.03

1992

917 622

2 275 122

221054

3 413 798

2 342 167

1.04

MEAN







1983-1992

+0.94%

1.84%

-0.38%

+1.37%

+2.89%



Table 2. Coconut accessions collection at three locations

Location/number/ecotypes

Code

Origin

Date of planting

Surviving trees

Mapanget (North Sulawesi)





Dwarf Types





1 Nias Yellow Dwarf

GKN

North Sumatera

Feb. 1977

78

2 Bali Yellow Dwarf

GKB

Bali Island

Feb. 1977

54

3 Nias Green Dwarf

GHN

North Sumatera

Nov. 1978

66

4 Jombang Green Dwarf

GHJ

East Java

Nov. 1978

57

5 Tebing Tinggi Dwarf

GTT

North Sumatera

Dec. 1979

49

6 Malayan Red Dwarf

MRD

Malaysia

May 1980

27

7 Raja Dwarf

GRA

Maluku

Aug. 1980

44

8 Sagerat Orange Dwarf

GOS

Maluku

May 1987

24

9 Salak Dwarf

GSK

South Sulawesi

Feb. 1988

46

Tall Types





10 Mapanget Tall

DMT

North Sulawesi

1927/27

50

11 Takome Tall

DTE

Maluku

May 1977

60

12 Bali Tall

DBI

Bali Island

Nov. 1987

59

13 Jepara Tall

DJP

Central Java

Nov. 1987

60

14 Paslaten Tall

DPN

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1987

84

15 Tenga Tall

DTA

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1987

88

16 Banyuwangi Tall

DBG

East Java

Jan. 1979

48

17 Sawama Tall

DSA

West Java

Aug. 1980

48

18 Mapanget 83 Tall

DMT83

North Sulawesi

May 1981

38

19 Mapanget 32 Tall

DMT32

North Sulawesi

Jul. 1981

40

20 Lubuk Pakam Tall

DLP

West Sulawesi

May 1981

62

21 Aetembaga Tall

DAG

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1981

37

22 llo-llo Tall

DM

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1981

46

23 Pungkol Tall

DPL

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1981

53

24 Tontalete Tall

DTT

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1981

42

25 Kinabuhutan Tall

DKN

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1981

55

26 Talise Tall

DMW

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1981

21

27 Marinson Tall

DMW

North Sulawesi

Nov. 1981

36

28 Sea Tall

DSE

North Sulawesi

Jan. 1982

46

29 Kalasey Tall

DKY

North Sulawesi

Jan. 1982

49

30 Wusa Tall

DWS

North Sulawesi

Jan. 1982

52

31 Palu Tall

DPU

Central Sulawesi

Nov. 1982

53

32 Pandu Tall

DPA

North Sulawesi

May 1983

46

33 Mapanget 99 Tall

DMT99

North Sulawesi

May 1983

49

34 Mapanget 55 Tall

DMT55

North Sulawesi

May 1983

44

35 Mapanget 2 Tall

DMT2

North Sulawesi

May 1983

42

36 Igo Daku Tall

DID

Maluku

May 1983

125

37 Igo Bulan Tall

DIB

Maluku

May 1983

125

38 Rennel Tall

RLT

Solomon

May 1983

125

39 West African Tall

WAT

Ivory Coast

May 1983

125

40 Tahiti Tall

PYT

Polynesia

Jun. 1983

125

41 Riau Tall

DRU

Riau



Pakuwon (West Java)





Dwarf Types





1 Nias Yellow Dwarf

GKN

North Sumatera

Feb. 1977

61

2 Bali Yellow Dwarf

GKB

Bali Island

Feb. 1977

59

3 Jombang Yellow Dwarf

GKJ

East Java

Nov. 1978

19

4 Jombang Green Dwarf

GHJ

East Java

Nov. 1978

12

5 Nias Green Dwarf

GHN

North Sumatera

Nov. 1978

64

6 Malaysia Yellow Dwarf

MYD

Malaysia

May 1980

62

7 Raja Dwarf

GRA

Maluku

Aug. 1980

78

8 Salak Dwarf

GSK

South Sulawesi

Feb. 1988

73

Tall Types





9 Boyolali Tall

DBY

Central Java

Nov. 1978

32

10 Banyuwangi Tall

DBG

East Java

Nov. 1978

28

11 Jepara Tall

DJP

Central Java

Nov. 1978

19

12 Paslaten Tall

DPN

North Sulawesi

Apr. 1979

68

13 Bali Tall

DBI

Bali Island

Apr. 1979

66

14 Tenga Tall

DTA

North Sulawesi

Apr. 1979

71

15 Beji Tall

DPU

Central Sulawesi

Apr. 1979

59

16 Lubuk Pakam Tall

DLP

West Sumatera

Oct. 1979

47

17 Sawarna Tall

DSA

West Java

Mar. 1980

118

18 Kar-kar Tall

KKT

Papua New Guinea

Mar. 1980

98

19 Markham Valley Tall

MVT

Papua New Guinea

Mar. 1980

130

20 Pangandaran Tall

DPR

West Java

Aug. 1986

76

Bone-Bone (South Sulawesi)





1 K.T.M. Jawa Tall


East Kalimantan

Jan. 1984

64

2 K.T.2. Samboja Tall


East Kalimantan

Jan. 1984

70

3 Kalbar I/1 Tall


West Kalimantan

Jan. 1984

73

4 Kalbar II/1 Tall


West Kalimantan

Jan. 1984

86

5 Kalbar III/1 Tall


West Kalimantan

Jan. 1984

68

6 Batu Kapal Tall


North Sulawesi

Jan. 1984

84

7 Noid II/A Tall


North Sulawesi

Jan. 1984

58

8 Noid II/B Tall


North Sulawesi

Jan. 1984

51

9 Noid II/C Tall


North Sulawesi

Jan. 1984

13

10 Poigar Budidaya Tall


North Sulawesi

Jan. 1984

92

11 Mogdale II/1 Tall


East Nusa Tenggara

Jan. 1984

6

12 Oebafok II/2 Tall


East Nusa Tenggara

Jan. 1984

24

13 Oebafok II/3 Tall


East Nusa Tenggara

Jan. 1984

5

14 Boa II/4 Tall


East Nusa Tenggara

Jan. 1984

58

15 Boa II/5 Tall


East Nusa Tenggara

Jan. 1984

7

16 Silian III/A Tall


North Sulawesi

Jan. 1984

13

17 Silian III/B Tall


North Sulawesi

Feb. 1984

72

18 Silian III/C Tall


North Sulawesi

Feb. 1984

44

19 Inobonto IV/A Tall


North Sulawesi

Feb. 1984

64

20 Inobonto IV/B Tall


North Sulawesi

Feb. 1984

47

21 Lolak V/A Tall


North Sulawesi

Feb. 1984

78

22 Inobonto IV/C Tall


North Sulawesi

Feb. 1984

2

23 Blok I Samuda CWC Tall


Central Kalimantan

Oct. 1984

66

24 Blok II Samuda CWC Tall


Central Kalimantan

Oct. 1984

47

25 Blok III Samuda CWC Tall


Central Kalimantan

Oct. 1984

141

26 Blok IV Samuda CWC Tall


Central Kalimantan

Oct. 1984

79

27 KM II Tall


Central Kalimantan

Oct. 1984

4

28 Bulan Tall


Central Kalimantan

Oct. 1984

22

29 Bawang Tall


Central Kalimantan

Oct. 1984

2

30 Sumbar I Tall


West Sumatera

Jan. 1986

89

31 Sumbar II Tall


West Sumatera

Jan. 1986

69

32 Sumbar III Tall


West Sumatera

Jan. 1986

55

33 Luwu I Tall


South Sulawesi

Feb. 1987

80

34 Luwu II Tall


South Sulawesi

Feb. 1987

3

35 Polmas Tall


South Sulawesi

May 1987

61


Table 3. Sources and production potency of coconut hybrid seednut, 1993

Source: Muldjodihardjo (1993)

No.

Seednut source

Provinces

Area

Production potency of seednut

1.

Puslitbun Marihat





- Sukamenanti

West Sumatera

97

697 100

- Rimbo Bujang

Jambi

165

1 314 400

2.

PTP VII Sei Dekan

West Kalimantan

150

1 889 700

3.

PTPX P.Ratu

Lampung

160

1 096 100

4.

PTP XXVII





- Tiniawangko

North Sulawesi

200

2 311 000

- Telpaputih

Maluku

100

830 000

5.

PT Patra Tani





- Serdang

South Sulawesi

80

1 500 000

6.

PT Multi Agro





- Corps. G. Batin.

Lampung

146

1 375 000

7.

PT Supin Raya





- Bone-Bone

South Sulawesi

137

937 000

8.

PT Kapas Indah





- Ambalodangge

Southeast Sulawesi

150

800 000

9.

PT Riau Sakti United Plantation





- P. Burung

Riau

184

2 650 000

10.

Coconut Research

Institute Manado




- Paniki

North Sulawesi

95

250 000

- Pakuwon

West Java

97

200 000

- Paya Gajah

Aceh

95

200 000


TOTAL


1 856

16 050 300


Table 4. Coconut development programme in 1993-97
Source: Muldjodihardjo (1993)

Project

Development area (ha)

Total

1993/94

1994/95

1995/96

1996/97

1997/98

1. TCSDP

3 550

11 360

18 650

30 950

4 050

68 560

2. S3TCDP

2 200

3 800

3 500

3 184

-

12 684

3. ISDP

2 500

4 100

4 000

1 900

-

12 500

4. PT. RSTM

5 786

9 082

1 412

-

-

16 280

5. PT. GHM

9 882

11 156

11 865

-

-

32 903

6. PT. SCK

3 500

3 500

3 500

2 800

-

13 300

7. APBD/ABPN

6 343





6 343

TOTAL

33 761

42 998

42 927

38 834

4 050

162 570


Table 5. Main characteristics of GKN, DTA, DBI and DPU ecotypes

Population

Husked Wt. (g)

Nut CV (%)

Endosperm

Ratio (%)

Wt. (g)

CV (%)

Thickness

Nut/Fruit

Endos/Nut

Nias Yellow Dwarf (GKN)

796

13.0

342

9.8

11.3

59.5

43.0

Tenga Tall (DTA)

1 209

15.3

538

13.5

12.8

65.6

44.5

Bali Tall (DBI)

1 567

16.8

644

14.1

12.2

78.2

41.1

Palu Tall (DPU)

1385

13.1

619

12.7

74.4

74.4

44.7


Table 6. Bud rot attack of Phytophthora on coconut hybrids and cultivars

Source: Directorate General of Estate (1992)

No.

Provinces/Locations

Hybrids/Cultivars

Planting/Survey

No. of trees Attacked (%)

Type

1.

North Sumatera







- Bangun Purba

1. WAT

1977

320

45

14

Gen Trial-1

2. CYD × WAT

1977

330

150

47

-do-

3. EGD × WAT

1977

320

104

33

-do-

4. PB 121

1977

320

139

44

-do-

5. WAT × PYT

1977

320

46

14

-do-

6. WAT × RLT

1977

320

74

23

-do-

7. MYD × RLT

1977

120

71

59

Gen Trial-2

8. MRD × WAT

1977

120

79

63

-do-

9. PB 121

1977

120

76

70

-do-

10. PB 121

1977

2211

992

45

Commercial

11. WAT

1977

1084

359

33

Pollen Source

12. RLT

1977

1867

41

2

-do-

13. PYT

1977

1404

32

2

-do-

2.

Lampung







- Bergen

1. MRD × WAT

1976

144

10

10

Gen Trial-2

2. PB 121

1976

144

5

3

-do-

3. MYD × PYT

1976

144

0

0

-do-

4. WAT

1976

144

7

5

-do-

5. PB 121

1976

1604

149

9

Commercial Area

6. WAT

1976

1084

89

8

Pollen Source

7. RLT

1976

600

8

1

-do-

8. PYT

1976

298

1

0.1

-do-

9. DJP

1978

465

2

0.1

-do-

10. DBI

1978

904

0

0

-do-

- Rejosari

11. MYD/MRD × PAT

1985

266

39

18

Commercial Area

- Padang Ratu

12. GKN

1985

11783

0

0

Seedgarden

13. MRD

1985

7417

0

0

-do-

14. MYD

1985

5052

0

0

-do-

15. CRD

1985

2565

0

0

-do-

3.

North Sulawesi







RICP:







- Pandu

1. KHINA-1

1977

745

3

0.4

Expt'l Garden

- Mapanget

2. GKN × DTA (KHINA-1)

1977

48

1

2

Gen Trail-1

3. GKN × DBI (KHINA-2)

1977

48

2

4

-do-

4. GKN × DPU (KHINA-3)

1977

48

6

12

-do-

- Kima Atas

5. KHINA-1

1984

64

9

14

Gen Trail-2

6. KHINA-2

1984

64

3

5

-do-

7. KHINA-3

1984

64

2

3

-do-

- Paniki

8. GKN

1977

840

293

35

Seedgarden

SCDP:







- PMU Dimembe

9. PB 121

1983

1198

539

45

Smallholder

- PMU Airmadidi

10. PB 121

1982

1430

441

31

-do-

4.

Central Sulawesi







SCDP:







- PMU Tompe

1. PB 121

1982

685

95

14

Smallholder

- PMU Sabang

2. PB 121

1982

705

145

21

-do-


Table 7. Specific characteristic of some coconut ecotypes in germplasm collection

No.

Main characteristic of interest

Ecotypes

Code

Origin

Note

1.

High yield of copra

- Mapanget tall

DMT

North Sulawesi

4.5 t/copra/ha/yr

- Tenga tall

DTA

North Sulawesi

3.5 t/copra/ha/yr

- Bali tall

DBI

Bali Island

3.5 t/copra/ha/yr

- Palu tall

DPU

Central Sulawesi

3.5 t/copra/ha/yr

2.

Early bearing

- Salak dwarf

GSK

South Kalimantan

16.5 mos. after germination

- Sawarna tall

DSA

West Java

3.5 yrs after planting

3.

High oil content of copra

- Sagerat Orange D

GSO

Maluku

67.0%

- Paslaten tall

DPN

North Sulawesi

67.5%

- Mapaanget tall

DMT

North Sulawesi

68.0%

- Pandu tall

DPD

North Sulawesi

67.0%

4.

Tolerant to tidal swampy area

- Riau tall

DRU

Riau


5.

Tolerant to drought

- Mogdale tall

DME

NTT


- Oebafok tall

DOK

NTT


- Boa tall

DBO

NTT


6.

Resistant to bud and nut rot

- Raja dwarf

GRA

Maluku


- Nias Green dwarf

GHN

North Sumatera


- Salak dwarf

GSK

South Sulawesi


7.

High yield of copra with low input

- Mapanget tall


North Sulawesi

3.5 t/copra/ha/yr

No. 1668

DMT-1668



No. 1709

DMT-1709



8.

High content of lauric acid on oil

- Lubuk Pakam tall

DLP

West Sumatera

40.40%

- Jepara tall

DJP

Central Java

42.50%

- Banyuwangi tall

DBG

East Java

42.10%

- Pungkol tall

DPL

North Sulawesi

42.10%

9.

High content of protein in meat

- Sea tall

DSE

North Sulawesi

4.55%

- Pungkol tall

DPL

North Sulawesi

4.28%

- Tontalete tall

DTT

North Sulawesi

4.51%

- Marinsow tall

DMW

North Sulawesi

4.20%


Table 8. Matrix of six crossing of selected coconut ecotypes in general trials

No. Crosses

Planting

Expected F1

Tentative Result

1. DWARF × TALL

Jan. 1988

high yield of copra substitution

Copra Production (t)

5 years

6 years

7 years

8 years

-GKN × DTA (KHINA-1)


material for food product

1.01

1.30

2.80

2.80

- GKN × WAT (PB 121)



1.06

1.50

2.90

2.56

- GKN × DTE



0.51

0.90

3.20

2.80

- GKB × DTE



1.26

2.20

2.50

3.34

- GKB × DMT



1.05

1.60

3.00

2.94

- GRA × DMT



0.98

1.30

3.30

3.13

2. DWARF × TALL

Jan. 1993

high yield of copra early bearing

flowering

- GKN × DTA (KHINA-1)




- GKN × DSA




- GKB × DSA




- GRA × DSA




- GHJ × DSA




3. DWARF × TALL

Jun. 1995

high yield of copra quality of nut be better tolerant to pest

vegetative

- GSK × DTA, PYT, RLT, DID & WAT




4. DWARF × TALL

May 1993

high yield of copra specific product for food and industry

flowering

- MYD × WAT (PB 121)




- GKN × DTA (KHINA-1)




- GKN × DID




- GKN × DTE




- GKN × RLT




- GKN × PYT




5. DWARF × TALL

Nov. 1993

resistant to bud and nut rot

bud not attack

GKN, GKB, GRA, GHJ, GSK × RLT, PYT, DTA, WAT, DSA



GKN × PYT



GRA × PYT



GHJ × DSA



GHJ × WAT



GKB × RLT

6. TALL × TALL

Jun. 1983

high yield of copra with low input

production (t/ha) of copra on 9th year: 3.33 - 3.63
Local (Control): 1.52


DMT bulk × 18 trees (copra prod'n > 45 kg/palm)




Coconut breeding programme of the Philippines

Gerardo A. Santos and Ramon L. Rivera
Division Chief III and Science Research Specialist, Breeding and Genetics Division, PCA-ZRC, San Ramon, Zamboanga City, Philippines

Introduction

The Philippines remains one of the two largest coconut producers in the world. It accounts for about 39% of the world's coconut production and about 52% of the world's coconut oil and copra exports in 1989 (PCCI-MARID 1991).

Sixty four out of 72 provinces of the country grow coconut as a major crop in varying production capacities. Production is largely concentrated in Mindanao which accounts for more than 60% of the total coconut production. In Luzon, Southern Tagalog is the premier coconut producing region accounting for almost 15% of the total nut production (BAS 1990).

As a major dollar earner of the country, more than 20 million Filipinos or about one-third of the country's population derive their livelihood from coconut. Of these, 1.6 million are farmers and around 1.9 million are farm workers (Magat 1993).

A United Coconut Planters Bank (UCPB) report projected that the Philippine coconut production will decline by 2% per annum primarily due to depressive biotic, environmental and farm management factors (Magat 1993).

The estimated decline of production values were 1.84, 1.66 and 1.38 million t in the Year 1995, 2000 and 2009, respectively. Cognizant of this alarming situation, the Philippine government through the Philippine Coconut Authority's (PCA) Small Coconut Farmers Development Project (SCFDP) implemented a coconut rehabilitation programme aimed at arresting the decline and at increasing national production to around 1.98, 2.06, 2.36 and 2.9 million t in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2009, respectively.

Coconut production and hectarage

Over the last ten years, coconut production registered erratic levels and averaged 2.14 million t copra annually. Production ranged from a low of 1.44 million t in 1984 to a high 2.69 million t in 1986 (Table 1).

There was an average increase of 0.85% per annum in coconut area from 1983 to 1986. However, from 1987 to 1992, the hectarage declined steadily such that only 3.077 million ha remained at the end of the period (Table 1). Consequently, coconut bearing palms followed the same downward trend, except in 1990, where a slight growth in coconut production was attributed to the expansion in production area of a little less than 1%, i.e. from 3.110 million ha in 1989 to 3.112 million ha in 1990 (PCCI-MARID 1991).

In 1991, production registered 2.06 million t (copra terms) which was lower by 21.6% from the previous year's 2.629 million t. There was a slight increase of 2.57% or a total of 2.113 million t in 1992.

Present level of productivity

Agustin (1993) provided the industry's salient points in terms of coconut production and current area devoted to coconut farms. Some of which are:

a) Coconut is grown in 3.08 million ha (24.14%) of the country's 12.81 million ha of agricultural land;
b) Volume of production is 2.113 million t in copra terms; and
c) Nut production is 11.405 billion from 289 million bearing trees.
In the Philippines, productive coconut palms are expected to yield at least 65 nuts/palm/year or 2 t copra/ha (PCCI-MARID 1991). From a nationwide survey of 57 provinces conducted by PCA, an average of 0.88 t copra/ha/year in low yielding areas and 1.98 t copra in high yielding areas were noted (Magat et al. 1981). National coconut productivity from 1980 to 1992 is placed at 50 nuts/palm or 33% less than the expected output.

Based on a strategic study of the coconut industry done by UCPB (Magat 1993), the expected net income per hectare using traditional tall varieties ranged from 2325 pesos (US$ 97) to 7008 pesos (US$ 292) in Mindanao (Southern Philippines).

Table 2 shows the annual production profile of coconut farms in the Philippines. Yield levels range from 18 nuts/palm (405.8 kg copra/ha) for low; 29 nuts/palm (851.1 kg/ha) for medium; and 50 nuts/palm (1600.8 kg/ha) for high yielding farms. Net income (in 1979 peso terms) ranged from 595 pesos, 1101 pesos and 1945 pesos for low, medium and high yielding farms, respectively. Under the 1994 peso equivalent, these amounts are estimated to be four times their values amounting to 2380 pesos (US$ 99), 4404 pesos (US$ 184) and 7780 pesos (US$ 324) for low, medium and high yielding areas, respectively.

In a study conducted on a tall variety (Laguna) and a PCA recommended hybrid (Catigan × Laguna), de Castro et al. (1992) reported an earlier return to capital investment of between six and seven years from field planting. The highest net returns per hectare in the amount of 2685 pesos (US$ 945) for the Laguna Tall and 27 157 pesos (US$ 1132) for the local hybrid were achieved at the 11th year from field planting at a price of 8 pesos/kg (US$ 0.33) copra. Yield levels reached 3.49 and 4.05 t copra/ha for Laguna Tall and the local hybrid, respectively, at a plant density of 143 palms/ha, with cover crop and fertilizer combination of ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) and sodium chloride (NaCl).

Types of coconut grown

The existing coconut stands in the country are still dominated by tails (at least 97%). Magat (1993) reported that from the initial planting of Malayan Yellow Dwarf × West African Tall (MYD × WAT) hybrids in 1976 to date, surviving population area of these high yielding hybrids including PCA local hybrids (PCA 15-1, PCA 15-2 and PCA 15-3) could be around 45 000 hectares. It was, however, estimated that these hybrids are occupying less area or around 30 000 to 35 000 hectares.

The major tall populations grown in the country are Bago-Oshiro (BAO), Baybay (BAY), Laguna (LAG), Macapuno (MAC), San Ramon (SNR), Tagnanan (TAG), and Hijo Tall (HJT). The dwarf varieties include Catigan (CAT), Tacunan (TAC), Kinabalan (KIN) and Aromatic (ARO).

National coconut germplasm collection

Past collecting activities were done by the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI), Tiaong, Quezon; College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines (UPLB), Los Baños, Laguna; and Visayas State College of Agriculture (ViSCA), Baybay, Leyte (Santos et al. 1984).

Since 1972, PCA initiated a vigorous campaign of conserving domestic genetic resources. It gained further momentum in 1981 with the financial aid provided by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (the then International Board for Plant Genetic Resources) and with the launching of the National Planting/Replanting Programme.

The past coconut collecting network of PCA involved the assistance of field men assigned in the different regions of the country. The team stationed at Zamboanga identified the collected populations either by direct characterization (use of genetic markers) or indirect as in CLUSTAN (Cluster Analysis) and by Mahalanobis Generalized Distances method (D2) using data collected during pre-prospection trips. The germplasm collections are planted in the PCA research centers at Davao and Zamboanga (both in Mindanao) and at Albay (Luzon). The populations consisted of various tall and dwarf types. Together with other collections from abroad, pure lines, local varieties and developed hybrids (Annex 1), the PCA's genebank in Zamboanga has become one of the most important germplasm depository of local and foreign coconut ecotypes in the world. To date, the PCA-Zamboanga Research Center (PCA-ZRC) has a total of 97 accessions; 52 tails, 23 dwarfs and 22 hybrids/lines.

Eleven of the 97 accessions in the Center are of foreign origin. Out of the 22 hybrid/line collections, 15 are F1 hybrids originating from six pure line tall populations. The total collection excluded the 67 inter-origin hybrids which are being tested for their combining ability in a series of 11 genetic trials.

Field collection of existing varieties in field plots forms the core of the PCA's efforts in genetic resources conservation. Likewise, production and storage of pollen from the different varieties below freezing temperature are also practised with periodic assessment of pollen quality. Duplication of all available accessions started in 1993 with the establishment of a Coconut Breeding Trial Unit (CBTU) at Panay Polytechnic College (PSPC) in Mambusao, Capiz. To date, 40 accessions consisting of 20 dwarf and 20 tall populations have been planted totalling 18 hectares.

Utilization

On the aspect of germplasm utilization, nine tall and seven dwarf highly promising populations were used to develop 67 hybrids at PCA since early 1970s. In Albay, 31 cultivars were screened for disease resistance against cadang-cadang disease either by artificial infection (mechanical injection of ccRNA to young seedlings or old palms) or by natural infection. Cultivars with low susceptibility to the disease were crossed with 'survivor palms' found in areas with high disease incidence. Six hybrids and three selfed lines were the first materials produced at Albay Research Center in 1984.

The collections are not only utilized for breeding experiments but also for mass production of selected F1 hybrids. Three PCA recommended hybrids, CAT × LAG (PCA 15-1); Malayan Red Dwarf or MRD × TAG (PCA 15-2); and MRD × BAY (PCA 15-3) are being produced by assisted pollination technique for a small-scale replanting programme. Local tall BAY is also recommended as planting material. Promising varieties like TAC, CAT, ARO, MRD, RIT (Rennel Is. Tall) and BAY are used for multiplication and purification of seednuts for seedgardens.

The germplasm collection in Zamboanga is also being used as a pollen source in the production of hybrid seednuts at various Coconut Germplasm Testing Stations (CGTS) of the PCA.

Genetic erosion

Although no exact estimate on the amount and extent of generic erosion can be made, coconut germplasm existing in farmers' fields are at present considered at greater risk today than in the past decade. Cutting down of old, low yielding and diseased trees in the context of the replanting programme is strongly encouraged. However, indiscriminate cutting of productive palms to provide wood for the construction industry has reached a very alarming stage. Cocowood has become a good substitute for hardwood which are becoming rare due to over logging of the country's rain forests. Landowners are also cutting down palms anticipating that the action could exempt their lands from land reform.

Ready cash incentives for land conversion into real estates and other ventures, i.e. shifting to other high value crops like mango, also contributed for the massive pre-mature cutting of coconut. According to a PCA report (PCA 1992), felling of coconut ranged from 204 000 to 360 000 palms per year.

The effect of typhoons, aggravated by the severe denudation of the country's rain forests, long drought periods and devastating effects of diseases (e.g. cadang-cadang), are likewise contributing factors hastening the genetic erosion of coconut in the country.

Comparative performance of coconut hybrids and cultivars

Two main factors generally determine copra yield, i.e. number of nuts and copra yield per nut. With few exceptions, coconut hybrids have higher nut production but lower copra recovery per nut. On the other hand, the local tails produce lesser number of nuts but have higher copra yield per nut. The higher total nut production of the hybrids more than compensates for their lower copra yield per nut. Coconut hybrids are not only prolific and precocious but also possess certain adaptive traits, like more efficient use of fertilizers and other environmental resources, earlier recovery from stress and stability, which make them more suitable for plantations and small farms.

The basic features of PCA recommended hybrids, the introduced hybrid MYD × WAT (MAWA) and four local tall populations under Zamboanga condition, where growing conditions are far from being perfect, i.e. 4 to 5 dry months per year, are shown in Table 3. The hybrids generally bloomed earlier than the local tails. Consequently, they bore fruit one to two years earlier than local cultivars. The local tall populations produced medium to large size nuts, while MAWA produced small-sized nuts. The local tails needed only 3.3 to 3.5 nuts to produce one kilogram of copra. On the other hand, the local hybrids needed an average of four nuts to make one kilogram of copra.

The higher copra recovery per nut of local tails like BAY, when compared to their hybrid counterpart, may be attributed to the large amount of meat they produced per nut (476-534 g). In contrast, the MAWA hybrid yielded only an average of 229g of meat per nut and had the lowest fruit quality value (FQV) of 0.37 among the eight cultivars tested. Three local hybrids, however, were comparable to the local tails in their nut component characters and FQV. The oil content was also similar among all cultivars.

National replanting programme

In the mid 1970s, the Philippine government embarked on a nationwide coconut planting/replanting programme in order to arrest the declining coconut production. The hybrid MYD × WAT was used in the programme to cover an initial 60 000 ha in 1982. The large scale planting of this hybrid throughout the country, however, encountered major problems such as: (a) location specificity of the material, which grows best only under favourable agro-climatic conditions; (b) the industry's need for a wide genetic base and (c) other character limitations like smaller nuts which drew negative reactions from farmers.

In 1989, PCA came up with four promising selections from its trials in Zamboanga after 18 years of genetic research on coconut (Bahala et al. 1989). The four promising selections were found to possess outstanding basic agronomic features which could very well satisfy the urgent need and the increasing demand for more superior types of coconut for utilization in the national planting/replanting programme.

In 1990, the Philippine government, through the Small Coconut Farms Development Project (SCFDP), launched a programme on coconut development and productivity improvement. Replanting, one of the major components of this project, involved the total replacement of senile coconut trees, or the in-filling or spot replanting of farms damaged by typhoons and other natural calamities with promising local cultivars and/or hybrids. Initial replanting target was 50 000 ha/year of the estimated 450 000 ha senile palms (Magat 1993). However, the target was revised to 5000 ha/year for the first five years and 20 000 ha for the succeeding years.

The present seed production sites of PCA have a combined capacity of about 240 000 seednuts/year, just enough to plant 1000 ha/year. These seed production sites are: PCA-Zamboanga Research Center (72 000 nuts); PCA-Davao Research Center (48 000 nuts); and Canumay Farms, Sultan Kudarat (120 000 nuts). A promising local tall population, Tagnanan, is also being utilized as seednut source for the replanting programme.

Main productivity problems

Most coconut groves in the country have low or declining productivity. Magat (1993) identified six factors responsible for declining coconut production in the Philippines. These are as follows:

1. Poor crop nutrition and inadequate fertilization.

PCA nationwide leaf survey revealed that approximately 60-65% of the total hectarage or about two million hectares of coconut have been suffering from nutritional deficiencies (nitrogen, potassium, sulfur). However, less than 5% of the farms practised fertilization.

2. Senile trees.

Estimated in 1993 to be around 60 million trees covering at least 450 000 hectares.

3. Production unsuitability of coconut land.

Only 65% of the coconut areas in the country are suitable for coconut production, setting aside typhoons and strong influence of rainfall amounts and distribution as major production suitability factors.

4. Improper harvesting and post-harvest practices.

The management practices used by farmers are generally traditional and wasteful.

5. Inadequate water and rainfall.

Common occurrence of long drought periods aggravated by severe deforestation in the country contribute to inadequate water.

6. Massive pre-mature cutting of palms.

Mainly due to logging ban and the negative response to the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL).

Initial results of the rehabilitation component of the SCFDP on coconut palms less than 50 years old revealed that coconut production (in terms of number of nuts) may be doubled through fertilizer application. Hence, the projected annual increase in coconut production from 0.71 to 1.47 t copra/ha on standing tails can be achieved.

The use of high yielding varieties/hybrids from the breeders' point of view is the best strategy to solve the declining productivity. However, due to insufficient supply or non-availability of planting materials the effect of the current replanting programme of the country is insignificant. Although four alternative planting materials are recommended, mass production of seednuts is wanting and should be given priority.

Another productivity problem that should be given proper attention is the destructive cadang-cadang disease caused by the coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCVd). This disease has been reported to be responsible for the death of 500 000 palms annually. It spread at the rate of 500 meters per year. The disease, first noted in San Miguel Island, Tabaco, Albay in 1929, has been confirmed to be present in the whole Bicol region in the three provinces of Samar, Maripipi Is., Leyte and in some isolated areas in Quezon province (Carpio 1989).

Breeding objectives and strategies

The PCA's breeding programme has two primary objectives. The first is to increase the yield of copra and/or oil per unit area per unit time. The second is to breed for widely adaptable coconut genotypes which are resistant to pest and diseases and stress factors such as drought and strong winds. Development of cultivars capable of producing the desired copra/oil yield and other traits is currently being initiated.

The specific objectives of PCA's breeding programme can be summarized as follows:

1. To improve the yield of coconut varieties by incorporating the desired heterosis or hybrid vigor from heterogenous populations;

2. To improve the precocity of local populations;

3. To screen and breed for pest and disease resistant varieties; and

4. To produce widely adaptable coconut hybrids/varieties.

The following breeding components are included in the programme to meet the above objectives:
1. Recruitment and training of human power on appropriate coconut research breeding techniques, e.g. hand pollination and data gathering;

2. Survey and collecting of indigenous coconut varieties;

3. Introduction of exotic coconut varieties;

4. Establishment, evaluation, maintenance and conservation of the collected varieties;

5. Improvement of facilities for breeding and selection;

6. In situ evaluation of domestic coconut varieties to obtain superior base population for hybridization work;

7. Hybridization of dwarf × tall coconut varieties;

8. Field evaluation (regional testing) of promising coconut hybrids and cultivars; and

9. Genotype evaluation for disease resistance in cadang-cadang infected area.

To attain the above objectives and to carry out the breeding components of the programme, the following specific projects are being implemented:
Project 1. Collecting and evaluation of coconut cultivars and conservation of genetic resources

Project 2. Hybridization of coconut populations of various local and foreign origin

Project 3. Coconut genotype evaluation in a cadang-cadang infected area and breeding for disease resistance

Project 4. Regional testing of local hybrids (RTLH)

Project 5. Regional testing of promising coconut hybrids and cultivars (MULTILOC)

These projects had confirmed the necessity of fertilizer application, even at very modest rates, in the initial phase of palm growth and development. The studies had likewise initially indicated the superiority of some entries in terms of copra yield, e.g. MYD × WAT, MRD × BAY, MRD × TAG, MRD × RIT, MYD × RIT and MRD × HJT.
Project 6. Coconut germplasm testing station (CGTS)

The project established 3-4 promising cultivars in eight locations throughout the country to serve as mini-seed gardens. Each station has an area of 10 hectares which could accommodate 2-3 hectares for each cultivar.

Under this project, four local hybrids are being produced by assisted pollination for testing in small farm holdings.

Project 7. Production and utilization of selected planting/replanting materials in the Philippines (HSP)

Mass production of recommended coconut hybrids is being done through assisted pollination technique. The project aims to produce high quality planting materials for the replanting programme while the proposed seedgarden is not yet fully operational.

Project 8. Development of synthetic variety of coconut: PCA Syn Var 001 (PHSV 001) Efforts toward the possibility of creating a synthetic variety of coconut are being undertaken by PCA. The project was initiated in 1979 with the establishment of selfed lines of Laguna (LAG) and Bago-Oshiro (BAO) tall population. This project maybe regarded as PCA's ultimate strategy in the mass propagation of improved planting materials for the replanting programme.

The PCA breeding programme for the next ten years (1993-2003)

The philosophy behind the PCA's varietal improvement programme is the attainment of balanced heterozygosity in the resultant progeny or hybrids. Individual hybrid palms emanating from dwarf parents carry certain degrees of close consanguinity. While this maybe a desirable trait, the likelihood of obtaining recessive genes that may expose the said population to the hazards of failure under any pest or disease epidemic is high. Balanced heterozygosity can be achieved from natural intercrossing among the open-pollinated lines particularly, tall varieties. Therefore, open pollination or mass breeding using desired pollen mix of tall varieties offers the best alternative to mitigate the effect of future epidemics.

In collaboration with local and international scientists in the allied fields, the Varietal Improvement Programme of the PCA will:

1. endeavor to include and make use of the best available techniques and breeding tools by maximizing collaborative relations with researchers in both local/foreign laboratories;

2. aim to further widen the genetic diversity of its coconut collection, participate in the international exchange and testing of coconut germplasm using the best available technology for its safe movement;

3. participate in cryopreservation experiments which are underway in the best equipped laboratories in the west for the long term conservation of the country's coconut genetic resources; and

4. collaborate in the conduct of related studies on Coconut Based Farming Systems (CBFS) particularly, on raising of animals under coconuts and/or planting of suitable inter-crops to maximize land utilization and increase farm productivity.

Apart from the continuing observations being made on the existing projects (discussed in the previous section), the Varietal Improvement Programme shall focus on the following short term, medium term and long term or continuing objectives:

Short term objectives (within the next five years)

1. To conduct economic analysis of promising coconut cultivars and hybrids;

2. To actively participate in studying the mechanism and nature of resistance of local cultivars to Phythopthora and other diseases;

3. To evaluate and characterize the coconut varieties and ecotypes in the PCA genebank;

4. To study the variability, screen and breed for population or genotypes with high quality attributes like protein content, free fatty acid components; pest and disease resistance and improved tolerance to drought conditions;

5. To study the performance of tall × tall crosses used as parental base population for the development of PCA SYN VAR 001;

6. To study the genetic diversity of local stands of coconut and assess the rate of genetic erosion;

7. To collect seednuts of threatened cultivars and establish them in the coconut genebank;

8. To assist in the development of alternative strategies for the long term conservation of coconut genetic resources;

9. To produce seednuts of selected hybrids in alternative seed production sites; and

10. To continue the duplication and testing of the coconut collection at the CBTU site in Mambusao, Capiz.

The medium term objectives (within six to ten years)
1. To develop better dwarf × tall and tall × tall hybrids;

2. To establish and maintain alternative seed production fields and coconut seedgardens;

3. To establish two more CBTU sites;

4. To produce high quality seednuts using assisted pollination technique in alternative seed production fields;

5. To assess the performance of the distributed hybrids and evaluate their acceptability to farmers; and

6. To pursue the development of open pollinated coconut varieties.

The long term or continuing objectives (beyond 2003)
1. To study the genetic diversity of remaining coconut stands with the employment of modern molecular techniques;

2. To further collect seednuts, establish and evaluate the performance of such cultivars in situ or ex situ;

3. To mass produce seeds of the developed open pollinated varieties (OPV); and

4. To evaluate the performance of the distributed planting materials in farmers' fields.

While the above mentioned objectives may appear too ambitious, in particular the development of the OPVs, it is pointed out that the immediate result of the current breeding programme on PCA SYN VAR could readily provide suitable materials for improved tissue culture techniques and in the development of the correct protocol on acclimatization of embryo-cultured coconut seedlings. In cryopreservation for instance, variability in embryo size was found to affect the survival of embryos following exposure to liquid nitrogen. The reduction of embryo size by limited somatic embryogenesis could provide a good alternative to surmount the problems posed by the effect of liquid nitrogen on varieties having big/large embryos.

In relation with other allied fields, the Programme will also participate in the promotion of CBFS-related studies that could be performed in the PHGC (Philippine Genetic Coconut) trials in ZRC, in particular, the rearing of livestock under coconut.

National institutions involved in coconut breeding

The major institutions currently active in coconut breeding in the Philippines are as follows:

1. University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB)
College of Agriculture
Los Baños, Laguna

2. Visayas State College of Agriculture (ViSCA)
Baybay, Leyte

3. Twin Rivers Research Center (TRRC)
Madaum, Tagum
Davao Del Norte

4. Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA)
Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

Funding agencies for coconut breeding projects in the Philippines

Since its inception in 1972, Coconut breeding projects of PCA are totally funded by the Philippine government with minor international support from UNDP/FAO. In 1981, the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) provided financial support for the germplasm collecting activities of the PCA.

Conclusion and recommendation

Coconut, the traditional source of foreign exchange, is a very important industry in the Philippines. However, for the past two decades the country's coconut production has been erratic and generally on the downward trend threatening the country's position as one of the top coconut producers in the world.

Increasing crop productivity through rehabilitation of existing tall palms below 50 years of age by fertilization should be continued to reverse, if not totally stop, the declining coconut production in the country. Likewise, greater efforts should be exerted in the mass production of recommended hybrid seednuts to adequately supply the replanting programme of the country.

Research-wise, collaborative breeding research with other countries should be given emphasis, not to mention the need for international support to take advantage of recent development in research.

Policy-wise, the government must curb current wanton felling of coconut palms not only for direct socioeconomic reasons but also to protect the environment. The contribution of coconut to the enhancement of the environment where it is found growing can not be discounted. The destruction brought by the denudation of forests in the Philippines should not be aggravated by the further felling of coconut which is a predominant component of the rich flora in many islands.

References

Agustin, Y. TV. 1993. Coconut Industry Kit - Series of 1993. United Coconut Association of the Philippines.

Bahala, R. T, S. B. Cano, and G. A. Santos. 1989. Recommended coconut variety hybrids/ cultivars for the national planting/replanting program. Philippine Coconut Authority, Agricultural Research and Development Branch.

BAS. 1990. Coconut Production Report. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, Department of Agriculture.

Carpio, C.B. 1989. Coconut genetic resources programme of the Philippine Coconut Authority Albay Research Center: Priorities for action (1990-1995). Unpublished.

De Castro, M.M., S.S. Magat and R.A.P. Prudente. 1992. A study of costs and returns of four cultural management techniques of coconut production. Phil. J. Coconut Stud. 16(2):6-19.

Magat, S. S. 1993. Coconut production and productivity in the Philippines: Realities and potentials in the early 90's. PCA-Agricultural Research and Development Branch, Diliman, Quezon City. Monograph. 4 p.

Magat, S. S. 1993. Coconut production and productivity: The Philippines. PCA-Agricultural Research and Development Branch, Diliman, Quezon City. Unpublished.

Magat, S. S., J. A. Habana, A. G. Escoton, A.D. Labarcon, and L. B. Froilan. 1981. Mineral nutrition (leaf) survey of coconut in the Philippines: I. Nutritional deficiency and fertilization. Philippine Coconut Authority, Agricultural Research Branch.

PCA. 1992. Agricultural Research Development Branch Annual Report. Philippine Coconut Authority, Diliman, Quezon City. Pp 122-154.

PCCI-MARID. 1991. Coconut. Market Information Dissemination. Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry - MARID, Metro Manila, Philippines. 25 p.

Santos, G. A., S. B. Cano, B. V. de la Cruz, M. C. Ilagan and R.T. Bahala. 1984. Coconut germplasm collection in the Philippines. Phil. J. Crop Sci. 9(1&2):l-9.

Additional References

Bureau of Agricultural Research. 1991. Coconut-based farming: State of the knowledge and practice. Department of Agriculture, Diliman, Quezon City. 302 p.

Magat, S. S. 1990. Growing conditions and growth habits of coconut in relation to coconut-based farming systems. In Proc of the Asian Coconut Community XVII COCOTECH Meeting, CBFS, Manila, Philippines. 25-29 June.

Magat, S. S. 1991. Coconut industry in the Philippines. Occasional Publication Series No. 14 Asian Pacific Community. Jakarta, Indonesia. 95 p.

Santos, G. A. 1986. State of the art: Coconut production in the Philippines. Coconuts Today. 4 (1):77-86.

Santos, G. A. 1993. Varietal improvement programme (1993-2003). Philippine Coconut Authority Zamboanga Research Center, San Ramon, Zamboanga City. Monograph. 11 p.

Santos, G. A, S.B. Cano and M.C. Ilagan. 1991. Variability of nut components and copra recovery in various coconut populations. Phil. J. Coconut Stud. 6(1):34-39.

UCAP. 1992. Annual Coconut Statistics, 1992. United Coconut Associations of the Phils., Inc. Manila, Philippines. 6(25):1-74.

UCAP. 1993 Coconut Industry Kit Series of 1993. United Coconut Associations of the Phils., Inc., Manila, Philippines. Unpublished.

Annex 1. Status of coconut genebank at PCA-ZRC as of March 1998

Block No. Dwarfs

Population/Accession

Date planted

Hills

Area (ha)

Total

Existing

01

Malayan Red (MRD)

12/75

485

347

2.71

A

New Buswang (BUSD)

04/84

92

55

0.51

B

Sto. Niño (SÑOD)

08/84

83

52

0.53

C

Tupi (TUPD)

09/86

78

31

0.43

D

San Isidro (SNID)

04/88

87

73

0.48

E

Sri Lanka Green (SGD)

09/86

82

58

0.46

F

Cameron Red (CRD)

02/86

123

32

0.69

02

Malayan Yellow (MYD)

01/76

543

284

2.51

A

Kapatagan (KAPD)

12/82

106

81

0.59

B

Galas (GALD)

10/83

110

81

0.61

C

Malayan Yellow (MYD)

10/83

61

31

0.34

D1

La Victoria (VIC-gD)

10/83

67

48

0.37

2

La Victoria (VIC-bD)

10/83

26

21

0.14

E

Talisay (TALD)

10/83

50

40

0.28

F

Malayan Yellow (MYD)

10/83

47

10

0.26

10

Tacunan (TACD)

01/77

84

48

0.47

11A

Makilala (MAKD)

09/77

106

66

0.59

B

Kinabalan (KIND)

09/77

117

76

0.65

C

Baguer (BAGD)

06/82

154

122

0.86

D

Bañga (BAÑD)

08/82

140

107

0.78

F

Mañgipod (MÑD)

01/91

69

35

0.38

12

Catigan (CATD)

04/77

1285

884

7.14

17A

Pilipog (PILD)

11/80

150

123

0.83

B

Tacunan (TACD)

02/81

165

109

0.92

28A

Malayan Yellow (MYD)

05/78

999

790

5.58

B

Equatorial Green (EGD)

07/78

113

77

0.63

C

Cameron Red (CRD)

07/78

168

56

0.93

1

Pilipog (PILD)

09/80

39

27

0.22

2

Sri Lanka Green (SGD)

09/80

15

5

0.07

D

Magtuod (MAGD)

09/78

146

72

0.81

E

Aromatic (AROD)

01/79

137

85

0.77



Sub-total

5927

3926

32.54

Tails






03

Rennel (RIT)

02/76

648

482

4.53

04

Baybay (BAYT)

03/76

155

141

1.08

05

Bago-Oshiro (BAOT)

03/76

151

93

1.06

06

Laguna (LAGT)

04/76

148

132

1.03

07

San Ramon (SNRT)

04/76

153

126

1.07

08

Zamboanga (ZAMT)

04/76

149

137

1.04

09

Tagnanan (TAGT)

09/76

1239

1037

8.66

10A

Acc. # 36

01/86

83

55

0.58

B

Acc. # 37

04/86

88

55

0.58

C

Acc. # 31

01/86

88

57

0.62

D

Acc. # 32

01/86

81

56

0.57

11E

Acc. # 35

06/86

80

61

0.56

13A

Baybay (BAYT)

07/77

494

439

3.45

B

Karkar (KKT)

06/79

148

125

1.03

C

Markham (MVT)

06/79

152

125

1.06

D

Gazelle (GPT)

06/79

151

134

1.06

I

Tahiti (PYT)

10/80

123

89

0.85

J

West African (WAT)

10/80

145

125

1.02

K

Spicata (SPIT)

10/80

115

104

0.83

L

Gatusan (GAT)

10/80

117

82

0.82

M

Vanuatu (VTT)

10/82

81

50

0.57

N

Tampakan (TPKT)

10/82

76

45

0.53

O

Aguinaldo (AGDT)

11/83

99

62

0.69

P

Baybay (BAYT)

11/83

69

48

0.48

Q

Salambuyan (SALT)

12/83

98

72

0.68

R

Venus (VENT)

12/83

96

83

0.67

18D

Bato-Bato T.

09/97

99

99

0.69

Lato-Lato T.

09/97

101

101

0.71

T'boli T.

09/97

94

94

0.66

Katangawan T.

09/97

103

103

0.72

20B

Acc. # 29

10/85

90

54

0.63

C

Acc. # 20

10/85

94

65

0.62

23A

Agta (AGAT)

12/85

84

68

0.58

B

Macapuno (MAC-DGT)

12/85

96

74

0.66

C

Acc. # 27

12/85

84

74

0.59

D

Acc. # 28

12/85

84

80

0.59

E

Acc. # 34

12/85

84

75

0.59

26A

Acc. # 44

07/87

90

51

0.56

C

Acc. # 33

10/86

90

26

0.56

D

Acc. # 46

10/86

40

23

0.25

E

Acc. # 40

10/86

90

61

0.56

F

Acc. # 42

06/87

90

50

0.56

G

Acc. # 47

06/87

80

30

0.50

H

Acc. # 43

06/87

90

21

0.56

I

Acc. # 45

06/87

89

24

0.56

29A

Banigan (BNGT)

12/83

96

51

0.67

B

Loong (LONT)

12/83

96

59

0.67

C

Baybay (BAYT)

12/83

64

42

0.45

D

Culaman (CULT)

09/84

96

50

0.67

E

Acc. # 16

01/85

96

60

0.67

F

Acc. # 25

02/85

90

48

0.63

G

Acc. #17

05/85

97

54

0.46

H

Acc. # 23

05/85

101

52

0.71

I

Acc. # 24

07/85

81

44

0.57

30A

Acc. #18

03/85

99

73

0.62

B

Acc. # 21

03/85

93

86

0.65

C

Acc. #19

03/85

91

74

0.64

D

Acc. # 30

03/85

92

76

0.64

E

Acc. # 26

03/85

94

73

0.66



Sub-total

7985

6030

54.98

Line Collections






13E

LAG S1

09/79

150

138

1.11

F

BAO S1

10/79

119

104

0.83

G

MAT × CRD

11/79

60

48

0.42

H

MAT × MYD

12/79

60

56

0.42

14C

MRD × TAC

07/79

119

80

0.66

D

MRD × CAT

07/79

128

102

0.71

F

MRD × BAY

07/81

38

36

0.21

16C

MAT × CRD

06/80

26

16

0.18


MAT × MYD

06/80

26

21

0.18

28B

Natural Hybrid EGD

07/78

443

345

2.46

18B

MRD × WAT

06/80

52

45

0.36



Sub-total

1221

991

7.54

Hybrid Trials






14A & 15A

PH GC 02Z

11/77

1152

1011

8.06

MYD × WAT


120

115


MRD × WAT


120

111


CRD × WAT


120

98


EGD × WAT


120

103


TAG


120

112


SNR


120

112


Dummies/Borders


432

360


14B & 15B

PH GC 03

05/78

720

641

5.03

PCA 15-1 (CAT × LAG)


144

129


CAT × BAO


144

132


CAT × TAG


144

134


MYD × WAT


144

128


Borders


144

118


16A

PH GC 04

01/79

884

826

6.18

CAT × PYT


120

115


CAT × WAT


96

92


CAT × TAG


144

136


PCA 15-2(MRD × TAG)


144

139


MRD × PYT


96

90


TAG


120

116


Borders/Dummies


164

138


14E

PH GC 05

10/79

585

504

3.25

MRD × TAC


110

87


MRD × CAT


110

107


TAC × TAC


110

87


CAT × CAT


110

105


Borders


145

118


18A

PH GC 06

06/80

832

657

5 2

TAC × LAG


144

117


TAC × TAG


144

108


MRD × BAO


144

123


MRD × LAG


144

125


TAC × BAO


144

118


Borders


112

66


16B

PH GC 07

11/79

364

328

2.55

MYD × LAG


96

79


MYD × SNR


96

89


LAG


96

91


Borders


76

69


17C

PH GC 08

03/82

1083

879

6.77

CAT × BAY


135

116


TAC × WAT


135

123


PCA 15-3(MRD × BAY)


135

123


RIT × TAC


135

94


RIT × CAT


135

101


MYD × WAT


135

120


Dummies/Borders


273

202


18C 19B & 20A

PH GC 09

09/83

1286

832

8.04

MYD × TAG


135

86


MYD × BAY


135

89


MYD × PYT


120

76


MYD × LAG


135

105


MYD × SNR


135

93


RIT × CRD


135

67


RIT × SGD


120

70


MYD × WAT


135

107


Dummies/Borders


236

139


19A

PH GC 10

07/83

634

439

3.96

BAY × CRD


90

66


TAG × CRD


60

42


BAO × CRD


90

63


BAY × SGD


90

60


LAG × CRD


75

52


MYD × WAT


90

75


Dummies/Borders


139

81


22

PH GC 11

02/84

1176

1024

8.22

RIT × WAT


120

113


BAY × WAT


120

112


BAO × WAT


120

108


LAG × WAT


120

113


SNR × WAT


120

111


ZAM × WAT


120

112


TAG × WAT


120

106


MYD × WAT


120

107


Borders


216

142



Sub-total


8716

7141

57.88

11E&21

Syn Var 001

08/92

1805

1650

13.86

BAY × TAG


135

133


BAO × WAT (86)


117

123


WAT × BAO (31)





BAO × RIT (112)


145

117


RIT × BAO (33)





WAT × LAG (68)


134

117


LAG × WAT (66)





BAO × TAG


108

87


BAO × BAY


96

74


WAT × RIT


117

115


LAG × RIT


134

118


LAG × TAG


134

118


LAG × BAY


120

108


WAT × BAY


118

114


LAG × BAO


106

110


WAT × TAG


113

107


RIT × BAY


105

96


RIT × TAG


123

113


20

Underplanting

01/94

994

847

5.82

PCA 15-1


144

137


PCA 15-2


144

134


PCA 15-3


144

138


BAYT


144

132


MRD × RIT


27

27


LAGT


24

24


MACT


24

24


Dummies/Borders


343

231


Seedgarden


6 785

6 785

37.03

PLOT 01 - 05

TACUNAN

10/95-7/96

2 156

2 156

12.03

PLOT 06 - 08

CATIGAN

09/96

1 243

1 243

6.90

PLOT 09 -14

TACUNAN

4/97-9/97

2 301

2 301

12.76

PLOT 15 - 17

CATIGAN

10/97

1 085

1 085

5.34


Grand total


33 433

27 370

209.65


Annex 1 (Summary)

Population/trial

Total palms

Existing palms

Area (ha)

Dwarf

5 927

3 926

32.54

Tall

7 985

6 030

54.98

Line Collection

1 221

991

7.54

Hybrid Trials

8 716

7 141

57.88

Syn Var 001

1 805

1 650

13.86

Underplanting

994

847

5.82

Seedgarden

6 785

6 785

37.03

Grand-total

33 433

27 370

209.65

Note:
Planting Density:
Tails: 143/ha
Dwarfs: 180/ha
D × T: 160/ha for GC 08, 09 & 10
143/ha for GC 02, 03, 04, 06 and 07
T × T: 143/ha for GC 11
D × D: 180/ha for GC 05
Table 1. Coconut production and hectarage, 1981 - 1992, Philippines
Source: United Coconut Association of the Philippines

Year

Area
(in million ha)

Bearing palms
(in million)

Production of coconut

No. of nuts

Copra equivalent (t)

1981

3.224

314.085

14 190

2.346

1982

3.203

309.634

13 146

2.172

1983

3.202

308.740

12 368

2.028

1984

3.223

306.950

11 738

1.441

1985

3.270

312.661

12 828

2.051

1986

3.284

314.352

14 335

2.690

1987

3.252

312.648

13 730

2.509

1988

3.222

308.179

12 482

1.894

1989

3.110

289.940

11 810

1.876

1990

3.112

290.173

11 940

2.629

1991

3.093

289.609

11 291

2.060

1992

3.077

287.910

11 405

2.113


Table 2. Annual production profile of coconut farms, Philippines (per hectare in 1979 pesos unless otherwise indicated)
Source: 1988 Coconut Industry Yearbook

Indicator

Farm types by yield

Average all farms

Low

Medium

High

1. Nuts

1461.0

3064.0

5763.0

3429.0

2. Nuts per bearing tree

18.0

29.0

50.0

32.0

3. Kilos of copra

405.8

851.1

1600.8

952.6

4. Total labor input (mandays)

13.3

20.4

30.3

21.3

5. Gross cash revenues

703.0

1276.0

2211.0

1397.0

6. Production costs

124.0

190.0

291.0

202.0

Materials and taxes

19.0

21.0

28.0

23.0

Depreciation

16.0

15.0

25.0

19.0

Hired labor

89.0

154.0

238.0

160.0

7. Net cash incomes

595.0

1101.0

1945.0

1214.0

8. Net cash income/farms

3035.0

4404.0

7197.0

5220.0

9. Hired labor as a percentage of a total input

54.5

58.0

70.4

61.0

10. Average farm size (ha)

5.1

4.0

3.7

4.3

11. Percent of farms(tenanted

23.9

27.9.0

26.7

26.2.0

12. Reported land price/ha.

4508.0

5283.0

4450.0

4747.0

Copra production estimated on the basis of a conversion factor of 3.6 nuts per kg copra.
Table 3. Basic features of recommended variety hybrids/cultivars with MAWA and local tails based on 1990-1992 data

Features

PCA 15-1

PCA 15-2

PCA 15-3

MAWA

BAY

SNR

TAG

LAG

Parents









Female

CATIGAN

MRD

MRD

MYD

BAY AG2

SNR

TAG

LAG

Male

LAGUNA

TAGNANAN

BAYBAY

WAT

(OP)

(OP)

(OP)

(OP)

Age (years)









First flowering

3-4

3-4

3-4

3-4

3.5-4.5

3.5-4.5

3.5-4.5

3.5-4.5

First nut harvest

4

4

5

4

6

6

6

6

Nut colour

G/B

BROWN

BROWN

G/B

G/B

G/B

G/B

G/B

Nut size

MEDIUM

MEDIUM

MEDIUM

SMALL

M - L

M - L

M - L

M - L

Nuts/kg of Copra

4.18

4.10

4.33

5.57

3.45

3.35

3.25

4.11

Bunch/year

11

9

8

11

13

10

10

10

Nuts/bunch

9

9

11

9

11

9

8

8

Nuts/palm

100

83

69

106

103

79

70

89

Nuts/ha/yr









(Grand mean)

9 277

8 209

9 247

10 605

10 054

5 590

4 705

6 945

(Mean: 1990-1992)

13511

11 253

10 438

14 426

13 941

10 179

9 484

12 035

Mean: 1992

13117

9 746

10 423

13 348

16 200

9 059

9 664

16 605

Copra/Nut (g)

239.3

244.8

230.9

179.4

289.3

298.2

307.6

243.3

Copra/palm (kg)

23.9

20.3

15.9

19.0

29.8

23.6

21.4

21.7

Copra/ha/yr (t)









(Grand mean)

2.31

2.14

2.24

2.01

2.92

1.75

1.50

1.79

(Mean: 1990-1992)

3.23

2.74

2.25

2.57

4.02

3.02

2.89

3.09

Mean: 1992

2.97

2.15

2.28

2.41

4.54

2.60

2.90

4.06

Wt. of whole nut (g)

1 295

1 284

1 139

972

1 433

1 625

1 651

1 223

Wt. of husk (g)

390

321

315

364

373

421

412

339

Wt. of shell (g)

207

210

174

146

236

262

267

197

Wt. of meat (g)

413

443

403

299

476

518

534

413

Wt. of water (g)

285

310

246

164

349

422

438

274

Fruit quality value (FQV)

0.41

0.46

0.45

0.37

0.44

0.43

0.44

0.43

Oil content (%)

64.30

62.90

-

62.20

63.50

63.50

63.50

63.50

Note: FQV = meat/whole nut- water

Coconut breeding programme in Thailand

Chulapan Petchpiroon and Anupap Thirakul
Coconut Breeder and Director, Chumphon Horticultural Research Centre, Thailand

Introduction

Coconut is one of the most important crops in Thailand. It is grown throughout the country. In the peninsular provinces, coconut is a major agricultural crop. About 80% of the production is consumed domestically and the rest is converted into copra. Like most other coconut growing countries in Asia and the Pacific, Thailand has a breeding programme to improve coconut and produce quality planting material.

Present coconut production and hectarage

Coconut has been grown in Thailand since ancient times with about 83% of the country's palms found in the southern and central regions. Coconut planted in the northeastern and northern parts amount to about 12% and 5%, respectively. The coconut production area and yield are shown in Table 1.

National coconut germplasm

Coconut germplasm collection in Thailand was established in 1965. A small number of varieties from local and foreign sources have been collected and utilized in the Chumphon Horticulture Research Centre (CHRC). Currently, 21 varieties (10 dwarfs and 11 tails) are maintained at CHRC (Table 2). In 1997, a coconut germplasm genebank (COGENT/ADB project) with 20 local accessions was set up at Kanthuli, Suratthani province.

The genetic resources have been used in the breeding programme at CHRC. Presently, F1 hybrids from single and two-way crosses are being assessed (Table 3).

Genetic erosion

The extent of genetic erosion of coconut in Thailand has not been assessed. However, comparison of coconut statistics for the past eight years (1987-94) showed a 5% reduction of planting area, indicating a gradual loss of coconut area. The major causes of such a loss were dam and road construction, town expansion, introduction of power lines, new crop plantations and the distribution of new hybrids. Natural disasters, such as windstorm and drought, have also caused the destruction of palms.

Future priorities for collecting, conservation and utilization

Collecting of germplasm with drought resistance should be emphasized due to prevailing drought conditions in the coconut areas. The plan is to introduce varieties with the specific character of interest and develop resistant hybrids. A constraint in acquiring exotic germplasm was the presence of certain diseases in some coconut growing countries. This led to difficulties in importation due to quarantine restrictions. However, materials of interest could be accessed from countries which are considered relatively disease-free.

Types of coconut grown in the country

The tails have traditionally been the preferred planting materials. Originally, the coconut palm was restricted to the east and west coasts, and off-shore islands. In inland areas like the central plain, coconut is now grown on a large scale. The coconut varieties planted on the two coasts of peninsular Thailand showed phenotypic differences. The two populations on West Coast are Pak Chok (PCK) and Thalai Roi (TLR). These varieties are planted on a small scale due to their small to medium-sized fruit with more husk and less meat compared to the predominant tall. Maphrao Yai or Thai Tall (THT) is considered to be the main commercial form. It has large, green or reddish-brown round fruit. Another tall population planted mostly in the central region is the Toddy variety which was selected because of its high concentration of sugar in the sap. In addition, dwarf types are extensively grown at present due to high demand for fresh consumption. There are a number of dwarf varieties available; Nam Hom (Aromatic Green Dwarf), Thung Khled and Nok Koom.

Apart from local varieties, three hybrids have been recommended; Sawi Hybrid No 1, known as PB 121 or MAWA, Chumphon Hybrid 60 (THT × WAT) and Chumphon Hybrid No 2 (MYD × THT).

Comparative performance of coconut hybrids and cultivars

A trial comparing hybrid coconut varieties with local Thai Tall (THT) was established in 1975 to find a better yielding variety with greater precocity than THT. Four hybrids were planted with selected THT as control. Results showed that MYD × WAT was the most precocious and had the highest yield, followed by THT × WAT hybrid. The THT yielded the least.

In addition, early results of local hybrid varieties trial had shown the MYD × THT hybrid was as precocious as the MYD × WAT and had bigger nuts.

Main productivity problems

There are no serious diseases and pests affecting the coconut palm. The present problem is the occurrence of drought.

Breeding objectives and strategies

At present, hybridization remains the best approach in obtaining rapid improvement in coconut. Better yields and resistance to drought are the goals of the current improvement programme. The breeding programme can be summarized as follows:

a) collecting of population with desired characters, such as high copra/nut, early bearing, large number of nuts and adaptability to environmental conditions;

b) inter-crossing of selected population, both local and foreign;

c) assessment of performance of hybrids;

d) breeding for tolerance to adverse climatic conditions; and

e) establishment of hybrid seedgardens.

Coconut breeding action plan
a) selection and multiplication of breeding materials with the specific desired character;
b) testing of combinations involving dwarf × tall and tall × tall crosses;
c) use of embryo culture technique for coconut exchange programmes; and
d) development of embryo and tissue culture techniques to hasten the breeding programmes.
The Chumphon Horticulture Research Centre shall implement the above coconut breeding action plan.

Conclusion and recommendation

There is a need to develop new hybrids for higher yield and adaptability to harsh environmental conditions such as drought. In this respect, the programme requires personnel, germplasm material, technical and funding assistance. The close collaboration among research centres is desirable.

Table 1. Area and production, 1987-1994

Year

Area

Nut yield/ha

Copra yield (kg/ha)


Planted (ha)

Harvested (ha)



1987

407 200

331 520

2257

677

1988

398 400

336 960

2335

700

1989

396 960

350 400

2342

702

1990

392 800

346 080

2353

705

1991

189 120

337 120

2339

701

1992

385 280

336 320

2396

718

1993

388 160

344 480

2825

847

1994

387 520

352 960

2787

835


Table 2. Coconut genetic resources collection at Chumphon Horticultural Research Centre

Varieties

Year

No. of Palms

Local Collections



DWARF



Mu Si Sum

1973 & 1977

212

Pathiu

1974

515

Thung Kled

1974

96

Nam Horn

1974, 1977 & 1987

602

Nali - ke

1977

30

Nok Koom

1976

22

TALL



Tap Sakae

1973

1 351

Nakhon Si Thammarat

1973

201

Chumphon

1973

723

Pak Chok

1968, 1975 & 1977

286

Thalai Roi

1964 & 1988

134

Maphraeo

1964

6,

Toddy

1978

255

Kalok

1986

102

Foreign Collections



DWARF



Malayan Yellow Dwarf

1977

250

Malayan Red Dwarf

1977

250

New Guinea Brown Dwarf

1991

35

Cameroon Red Dwarf

1991

14

TALL



Sri Lanka Tall

1965

133

West African Tall

1975, 1976 & 1986

827

Rennel Tall

1978 & 1986

619


Table 3. List of CHRC's F1 hybrids

F1 hybrids, single crosses which are being assessed in-station and off-station trials

1. Malayan Yellow Dwarf × West African Tall
2. Malayan Yellow Dwarf × Maphrao Yai
3. Malayan Yellow Dwarf × Kalok
4. Malayan Yellow Dwarf × Pak Chok
5. Kalok × Pak Chok
6. West African Tall × Maphrao Yai
7. Rennel Tall × Maphrao Yai
8. Sri Lanka Tall × Maphrao Yai

F1 hybrids, two-way crosses which are being assessed in-station trial

1. (Rennel Tall × West African Tall) × (Thai Tall)
2. (Malayan Yellow Dwarf × West African Tall) × (Thai Tall)
3. (Malayan Yellow Dwarf × Tahiti Tall) × (Thai Tall)
4. (Malayan Red Dwarf × Rennel Tall) × (Thai Tall)
5. Malayan Yellow Dwarf × Thai Tall) × (Rennel Tall)

Coconut breeding programme of Vietnam

Vo Van Long
Coconut Breeder, OPI, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Introduction

Coconut (Cocos Nucifera L.) planting in Vietnam started throughout the Mekong River Delta in the South and along the coastal area in the Central region several years back. The total area of coconut plantation in the country is estimated at 297 200 ha in 1989 (Table 1). They are mostly owned by smallholders and provide the primary source of income to the million of farmers in these regions. Coconut in the country is widely used for culinary purposes. Some are converted into copra and oil for industrial use, the remaining exported.

In 1980, research activities in coconut were officially initiated with the establishment of Institute for Research on Oils and Oil Plants now known as the Oil Plants Institute of Vietnam (OPI).

Present coconut production

Coconut is usually grown as a 'companion crop' as most of the coconut farmers prefer intensive farming involving other commodities, e.g. fish, shrimps, piggery, fruit crops, etc. Hence, little attention is given to coconut. Majority of the coconut farmers are still using unselected seeds as planting materials. These are the reasons why the present productivity of coconut is only 800 to 1100 kg copra/ha/year.

Present farm level productivity

The productivity of coconut varied from one place to another with an average of 36 nuts/palm/year. The maximum of 40 nuts has been recorded in Ben Tre province. It has also the largest area planted to coconut in the country. The lowest yield of 26 nuts is recorded in the province of Nghia Binh where there has been a prolonged drought and has limited irrigation facilities. Most coconut stands (80%) have been planted after the end of the war in 1975.

Table 2 shows the estimated net income from a hectare of coconut at the Mekong River Delta. A well-managed coconut farm yields 30% to 50% more compared with the traditional farm. There are better cases where the increase in some well-managed plantation reached up to 73% compared with the average productivity in the whole country.

National coconut germplasm

Surveys of existing coconut germplasm resources were carried out at different sites nationwide. The results showed that a wide genetic variability exists in the country (Tables 3a, 3b, 3c and 3d). Both dwarf and tall varieties were recorded and classified with many forms/cultivars belonging to each group.

Collecting of most promising varieties were also done. A total of 15 local tall cultivars and five dwarfs were gathered in collection blocks in Dong Go Station (Ben Tre province) and Trang Bang Station (Tay Ninh province). Due to financial constraint, the field genebank in Trang Bang Station was closed since 1994. The collected varieties have adapted well to ecological conditions of the region and some of them have high production potential. Likewise, 14 exotic varieties and seven hybrids involving four hybrids from the Institute de Recherches pour les Huiles et Oléagineux (IRHO) were introduced into the country through the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) Project VIE 80-009 (1984-1988) and Vietnam - French Cooperation Programme.

Diversity of coconut germplasm is being exploited in breeding programmes to increase the yield of copra and oil. Aside from the two indigenous hybrids from crosses of promising local varieties, four other hybrids from IRHO, two hybrids from Philippines (JVA1 and JVA2) and one hybrid from Sri Lanka (CRIC65) were also introduced.

Meanwhile, some populations, e.g. Catigan, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf, Malayan Yellow Dwarf, West African Tall, San Ramon and Hijo Tall are showing good performance. Until today, these coconut hybrids have been produced locally using the available genetic materials PB121, PB141, JVA1, JVA2, Tam Quan × Hijo Tall, MYD × Ta Tall, MYD × Palu Tall, and MYD × Rennel Tall, The pollen of Palu Tall and Rennell Tall were obtained from Indonesia.

Generally, coconut trees in Vietnam are still at a very young stage. However, due to the prevailing low price of coconut products in the market, some farmers are forced to cut down young and still productive palms and replaced them with other crops, e.g. longan, mandarin, orange, which command higher market price. Hence, the coconut palms in some areas (e.g. Mekong River Delta) are endangered.

OPI shall continue the coconut germplasm collecting so that all types of coconut, regardless of traits and characters, can be conserved. The basis for observation shall be the descriptors approved by the then International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR). Embryo culture method shall be improved to be able to keep genetic materials for a long time in preparation for international exchange of germplasm. This is possible if the government and all the concerned countries will unite to support this endeavour. In the meantime, due to financial constraint, field genebank is the only way to conserve germplasm collection in the country.

Types of coconut grown in the country

As earlier mentioned, there is a wide genetic variability in the country. This has been proven by the existence of the different types of coconut in some parts of the country.

Tall variety

- Ta is the most widely cultivated coconut (79.2%) and considered as a traditional variety in the country due to its many years of existence in different regions. It has large nuts generating 260-280 g of copra/nut.

- Dau is the second most popular variety under cultivation (14.4%) with good characteristics, e.g. high number of medium-size nuts per bunch, good nut component (180-220 g of copra/nut).

- Giay variety is popular in the central region, specially along the coastal areas because of its big nuts and high number of nuts per bunch.

- Bi or Bung variety has the largest nut size (2.7 kg) but with low number of nuts/bunch.

There are also other cultivars with special characters but with small number of individuals such as Sap (Macapuno), Ngot (sweet), Dua (aromatic) and Soc (stripe).

Dwarf variety

Three distinct dwarfs have been identified. The following dwarfs are mainly used for drinking because of their aroma and high water sugar content (9.8%):

- Eo variety produces the smallest nuts (20-40 nuts per bunch) with brown colour.

- Xiem variety has bigger nuts (15-20 nuts per bunch) with green colour.

- Tam Quan variety has yellow colour with good fruit component (Q = 21.5). It is considered the most promising material among local dwarfs.

Until now, coconut hybrids have been planted on a small scale because of its non-availability. On the other hand, local varieties can be easily bought at the farmers' gardens. Hence, the coconut farmers prefer to plant local varieties than hybrids. Since 1997, seedlings of hybrids PB121, PB141, JVA1, JVA2 and Tarn Quan × Hijo Tall are sold to farmers at Dong Go Experimental Center, Ben Tre province.

Comparative performance of coconut hybrids and cultivars

In order to evaluate adaptability, the first hybrid seednuts were introduced into the country in 1984. They were PB 111, PB 121, PB 132 and PB 141. In 1986, JVA1, JVA2 and CRIC 65 were also introduced for the same purpose. The first hybrids were planted in experimental blocks at the Dong Go Station. So far, PB 121 (MAWA) shows the best performance compared with other hybrids and Ta (local) control (Table 4a and 4b).

Diseases have not been recorded on these varieties. The presence of rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) and red weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugenous) are still within the economic threshold level.

The seedlings of two indigenous hybrids, i.e. Eo × Ta and Tam Quan × Ta, were planted in Dong Go Station in 1991. Although data are still incomplete, Tam Quan × Ta appears to perform better than Eo × Ta (Table 5).

National replanting programme, present status and future targets

After the civil war in 1975, coconut is included as one of the most important crops under the development programme of Vietnam government. The area planted to coconut reached 60 000 ha in 1984 and went up steadily in the following years. Out of the total area of 297 200 ha, 260 000 ha were planted during the last 18 years. The country is still at the stage of implementing the replanting programme in major coconut regions of the country. Trang Bang, the only coconut seedgarden in the country operating under the assistance of IRHO, is starting to produce the hybrid PB 121. The hybrid seedlings are intended for distribution to coconut farmers for replacement of their senile and unproductive palms.

Breeding objective and strategy

The use of improved varieties/hybrids as planting materials and the application of proper techniques in growing coconut will surely increase the country's production capacity. The strategy is to maintain and improve the existing coconut plantations by replacing the senile and unproductive palms with hybrids capable of producing 80-100 nuts/palm/year. This way, coconut farmers can increase their income. The coconut breeding programme, therefore, aims to produce the best planting materials that can adapt easily to a wide range of ecological conditions in the country.

The plan to develop coconut hectarage up to 500 000 ha in 1995 for future expansion of the coconut industry has been cancelled due to financial problems. As a result, OPI's long-term breeding programme is hampered.

Coconut breeding action plan and expected output in the next ten years

The plan of action is of two stages:

First stage:

Initially, germplasm for evaluation trial will be identified by using the conventional mother palm selection method. The number of nuts and morphological characteristics genetically correlated with yield will be measured to improve efficiency of selection among tall varieties as parent palms for hybridization.

In the last decade, a large number of seednuts were selected through this method for replanting purposes. The palm should be 15 to 40 years of age producing 60 nuts per year for Ta and 80 nuts per year for Dau. These nuts should be able to produce at least 450 -500 g and 380 - 450 g of meat, respectively.

Second Stage:

Simultaneous with germplasm selection, crosses between dwarf and tall varieties involving introduced and indigenous materials (with good ecotype and combining ability) will be made. If the two indigenous hybrids (Eo × Ta, Tam Quan × Ta) perform well, they will be used in establishing seedgardens. Meanwhile, due to financial problems, crosses will concentrate on dwarf as a mother palm and tall as a male.

The subsequent work in this stage is intended to further improve the available dwarf × tall hybrids by refining parent populations so that the best quality hybrids can be produced.

Suggestion for collaborative breeding research with other countries

Coconut breeding research is a complex, long-term work due to the plant's biological constraints. It requires substantial time, scientific resources and continuous financial support. A collaboration, therefore, among countries engage in coconut improvement is necessary to exploit the genetic diversity as effectively as possible.

Funding agencies for coconut breeding project in the country

Besides the funding from the government, the OPI has been receiving assistance from IRHO-French, and FAO/UN. Since 1994, ADB and then IFAD (1997) provided funding for research and development of coconut in Vietnam. Through this funding assistance, the Trang Bang Seedgarden was established and the genetic conservation and sustainable use of coconut genetic resources strengthened for the benefit of Vietnamese farmers.

Conclusion and recommendation

The coconut breeding programme in Vietnam has initially collected 14 exotic coconut varieties and 20 indigenous cultivars. These initial collections are being maintained based on IBPGR minimal descriptor list. Seven introduced hybrids including four IRHO hybrids and two indigenous hybrids are being tested for their adaptability to different ecological conditions in the country. Out of these hybrids, PB 121, JVA1, JVA2 and CRIC65 have shown the best performance. An isolated seedgarden, patterned after the method developed by IRHO, was built to produce seednuts of selected hybrids.

The initial results have yet to bring about substantial improvement in coconut productivity. However, the breeding programme should be able to achieve this in due time. Nevertheless, carrying out such a programme requires a lot of funding, materials, facilities and others which are out of reach of the OPI. Therefore, international collaboration with other countries and organizations capable of providing technical and financial support will be very important and necessary for Vietnam to achieve the goal of its coconut breeding programme.

Table 1. Area planted to coconut in Vietnam, 1989

Region/Province

Area (ha)

Central Region


1. Quang Nam - Da Nang

8 300

2. Nghia Binh

38 000

3. Phu Khanh

10 300

4. Thuan Hai

8 200

East Region of the South


5. Tay Ninh

8 700

6. Song Be

2 000

7. Ho Chi Minh City

4 200

8. Dong Nai

10 300

Mekong River Delta (South)


9. Long An

16 800

10. Tien Giang

18 600

11. Ben Tre

58 700

12. Cuu Long

50 200

13. Dong Thap

5 600

14. Hau Giang

28 600

15. An Giang

1 700

16. Minh Hai

4 000

17. Kien Giang

23 000

Total

297 200


Table 2. Estimated net income from a hectare of coconut in Mekong River Delta

Traditional Farm



Number of trees planted/ha

=

160

Average production of nut/year

=

5 760 nuts

Price per nut1

=

900 VND

Total return

=

5 184 000 VND

Total cost (fertilizer, labour, etc.)

=

1 400 000 VND

Net income per year/ha2

=

3 784 000 VND

Well-managed Farms



Average production of nut/year

=

8 480 nuts

Total return

=

7 632 000 VND

Total cost (fertilizer, labour, etc.)

=

2 800 000 VND

Net income per year/ha2

=

4 800 000 VND

Exchange rate: 1 US$ = 13 000 VN dong
1 Price as of April 1998
2 Incomes from intercropping are not included
Table 3a. Collection of introduced coconut varieties in Vietnam

Variety

Origin

Date planted

No. of existing trees

1 West African Tall

Ivory Coast

1987

44

2 Ghana Yellow Dwarf

Ivory Coast

1987

37

3 Equatorial Guinea Dwarf

Ivory Coast

1987

50

4 Malayan Yellow Dwarf

Ivory Coast

1987

50

5 Hijo Tall

Philippines

1987

44

6 San Ramon Tall

Philippines

1987

44

7 Orange Dwarf

Philippines

1987

24

8 Catigan Dwarf

Philippines

1987

23

9 Sri Lanka Yellow Dwarf

Sri Lanka

1987

42

10 Sri Lanka Red Dwarf

Sri Lanka

1987

19

11 Sri Lanka Green Dwarf

Sri Lanka

1987

54

12 Fiji Tall

Fiji

1987

0

13 Malayan Red Dwarf

Fiji

1987

50

14 Niu Leka Dwarf

Fiji

1987

0

15 Malayan Green Dwarf

Malaysia

1990

12

16 Cameron Red Dwarf

Ivory Coast

1987

0


Table 3b. Collection of local coconut varieties in field genebank in DGEC

Variety

Origin

Date planted

No. of existing trees

1 Ta

Ben Tre province

1987

45

2 Dau

Ben Tre province

1987

45

3 Sap (Macapuno)

Vinh Long province

1987

40

4 Lua (Fire)

Ho Chi Minh City

19??

40

5 Ta Tan Thoi

Tien Giang province

19??

60

6 Ta Ben Luc

Long An province

1987

60

7 Tarn Quan

Tien Giang province

1987

50

8 Eo

Ho Chi Minh City

1987

50

9 Xiem

Ben Tre province

1987

50


Table 3c. Collection of coconut varieties (through COGENT Project) planted in 1997 in Dong Go Experimental Center (OPI) - Summary of vegetative data (cm)

Location/code

Girth

Length of 10 scars (from 1 m upward)

Petiole (cm)

Length (cm)

Leaflet

Bole
(20 cm)

Trunk (150 cm)

Thickness

Width

Length

Rachis

Frond

Number (on 1 side)

Length (cm)

Width (cm)

1. Tam An, Long Thanh, Dong Nai
(TAN/LT/DN)

145.60

83.20

49.00

2.32

5.54

110.80

385.30

496.10

104.60

117.30

5.00

2. Phu Huu, Nhon Trach, Dong Nai
(PHU/NT/DN)

142.85

87.81

44.59

2.28

5.77

111.29

332.64

443.93

111.98

112.33

4.99

3. Tarn An 1, Long Dat, Ba Ria-Vung Tau
(TAX/LD/VT)

132.26

79.63

52.83

2.45

5.43

119.96

349.90

469.86

107.86

106.53

5.06

4. Tam An 2, Long Dat, Ba Ria-Vung Tau
(TAV/LD/VT)

134.38

90.56

59.48

2.46

5.52

127.92

358.26

486.18

107.30

111.93

5.10

5. Ham Tien, Phan Thiet, Binh Thuan
(HTI/PT/BT)

*

88.23

43.76

2.44

6.08

128.57

386.62

515.19

107.50

109.32

5.21

6. Cat Trinh, Phu Cat, Binh Dinh
(CAT/PC/BD)

158.20

95.89

48.29

2.68

6.31

127.06

375.08

502.14

101.20

112.02

5.53

7. Thi Tran, Phu My, Binh Dinh
(THT/PM/BD)

167.00

101.00

55.90

2.76

6.80

152.20

400.00

552.20

108.70

114.83

5.46

8. Tam Quan Nam, Hoai Nhon, Binh Dinh
(TQN/HN/BD)

159.85

104.30

81.53

2.83

7.44

138.83

414.70

553.53

113.02

124.88

5.85

9. Giong Lon, Cau Ngang, Tra Vinh
(TGL/CN/TV)

142.11

78.24

42.63

2.14

6.28

117.16

370.60

487.76

115.57

102.04

5.42

10. Cha Va, Cau Ngang, Tra Vinh
(DCV/CN/TV)

112.73

79.73

42.23

2.32

5.82

105.73

337.96

443.69

105.03

105.86

5.15

11. Binh An, Chau Thanh, Kien Giang
(DBA/CT/KG)

117.31

82.03

43.65

2.44

3.42

114.62

398.10

512.72

111.48

105.96

5.07

* Note: Due to drought, a hole with 1.5 meter deep was made before planting seedlings.
Table 3d. Nut component analysis of 11 populations to be collected in COGENT Phase 1 - Summary of nut component analysis

Location/code

No. of nuts sampled

Weight (in grams)

Whole nut

Husked nut

Husk

Split nut

Meat

Shell

Water

1. Tarn An, Long Thanh, Dong Nai (TAN/LT/DN)

30

1 7056

935.3

770.3

646.6

427.3

219.3

288.7

2. Phu Huu, Nhon Trach, Dong Nai (PHU/NT/DN)

30

1 6144

984.0

630.4

646.4

433.6

212.8

337.6

3. Tarn An 1, Long Dat, Ba Ria-Vung Tau (TAX/LD/VT)

30

1 5327

893.2

639.5

595.0

383.2

211.8

298.2

4. Tarn An 2, Long Dat, Ba Ria-Vung Tau (TAV/LD/VT)

30

2 0589

1 1679

891.0

747.4

474.7

272.7

420.5

5. Ham Tien, Phan Thiet, Binh Thuan (HTI/PT/BT)

30

2 5786

1 3256

1 253

809.3

497.0

312.3

516.3

6. Cat Trinh, Phu Cat, Binh Dinh (CAT/PC/BD)

30

1 8976

1 120

777.6

677.0

443.0

234.0

443

7. Thi Tran, Phu My, Binh Dinh (THT/PM/BD)

30

1 6213

1 0426

578.7

686.3

442.3

244

356.3

8. Tarn Quan Nam, Hoai Nhon, Binh Dinh (TQN/HN/BD)

30

2 2580

1 3616

896.4

838.3

536.3

302.0

523.3

9. Giong Lon, Cau Ngang, Tra Vinh (TGL/CN/TV)

30

1 5880

1 009

579.0

706.0

451.0

255

303.0

10. Cha Va, Cau Ngang, Tra Vinh (DCV/CN/TV)

30

1 4360

855.0

581.0

584.0

374.0

210.0

271.0

11. Binh An, Chau Thanh, Kien Giang (DBA/CT/KG)

30

1 5930

970.0

623.0

620.0

394.0

226.0

350.0


Table 4a. Performance of four IRHO hybrids planted in 1985 in Dong Go Station1

Characters

PB 111

PB 121

PB 132

PB 141

Ta
(local control)

Leaf produced/year

15.5

15.8

16.0

14.3

15.0

Total no. of leaves

26.9

29.1

28.7

25.9

25.9

Trunk height (cm)

302.2

323.5

309.7

237.0

243.0

No. of nuts produced/tree/yr2

65.8

69.4

48.0

54.1

35.4

Weight of copra/nut (kg)

0.213

0.211

0.225

0.213

0.265

1 Data gathered in 1993
2 Data recorded in 1996
Table 4b. Performance of three introduced hybrids planted in 1987 in Dong Go Station1

Characters

JVA1

JVA2

CRIC65

Ta
(local control)

Total no. of leaves

13.8

15.5

15.2

12.4

Circumference at 20 cm above ground level (cm)

89.3

84.1

86.8

99.8

No. of nuts produced/tree/yr2

68.4

57.6

67.3

31.3

Weight of copra/nut (kg)

0.241

0.264

0.255

0.277

1 Data gathered in 1993
2 Data recorded in 1996

JVA1 = MYD × Hijo Tall
JVA2 = MRD × Hijo Tall
CRIC65 = Sri Lanka Green Dwarf × Sri Lanka Tall

Table 5. Performance of two indigenous hybrids in Dong Go Station1

Characters

Tarn Quan × Ta

Eo × Ta

Ta (control)

Girth (cm)

128.8

118.7

113.9

Total number of leaves

13.7

13.5

12.7

Flowering trees (%)

36

30

35


1 Planted in 1991, data gathered in 1996


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