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Ecology and habitats of bamboos in Yunnan, China - Wang Kanglin

Research Fellow, Kunming Institute of Botany, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Abstract

Understanding the ecology and habitats of bamboos is the main requirement to develop silviculture and sustainable exploitation of bamboo resources. In addition, information on ecology and habitats of bamboo species provides a base for making silvicultural improvements.

There are two basic types of bamboo rhizome system, namely: monopodial and sympodial. Rhizome is a stable and natural structure, this being a very important structure used in bamboo taxonomy. Tropical bamboos mostly belong to the sympodial system, and temperate bamboo species to the monopdial system. Based on ecology and habitats of bamboo, bamboo forest resources in Yunnan can be divided into three types. Namely: 1) temperate bamboo forest; 2) sub-temperate bamboo forest; and 3) tropical bamboo forest.

Key Words: Bamboo; Ecology; Habitat; Yunnan

Introduction

Ecology and habitats of bamboo provide the base for silvicultural development. Understanding the ecology, habitats, and distribution of the bamboo forests is a prerequisite for conservation, cultivation and improvement of bamboo productivity. The rhizome system is one of the least well understood parts of the bamboo plant, and rhizome system establishes the clump or the running habit of bamboo (McClure 1966). The bamboo propagation system uses rhizomes also. The distribution of bamboo species, and formation of bamboo forest is strongly influenced by a series of complex and diversified ecological factors, including topography, precipitation, temperature, latitude, altitude, soil, and so on.

The province of Yunnan, covers 3 940 000 ha, 84% of which is mountainous area, 10% plateau, and 6% basin area. The elevation is low in the South but high in the North, from the South to the North the elevation rises from 76.4 to 6740 m above sea level, while the horizontal distance is less than 1000 km. Many large rivers in Asia originate from or pass through Yunnan, such as Jinsa (Upper Yangtze River), Nanpan (Upper Pearl River), Yuan (Red River), Lancang (Mekong River), Nu (Salween River), and Duolong - Daying (Irrawaddy River). Yunnan thus has good variation in geography and water resources. Strong tropical monsoon and the plateau landform, are suitable for the formation of rich vegetation. Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the Indo-China Peninsula are next to each other and great diversity of species and vegetation has been recorded in Yunnan. The bamboos are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and form many stable communities.

Rhizome

There are two basic types of rhizome systems, namely: pachymorph (determinate, sympodial, or clump-forming type), and leptomorph (indeterminate, monopodial, or running type) (McClure 1966; Wong 1995). Another fundamental difference is the primary culms resulting from a monopodial rhizome are of the same order of branching, whereas culms resulting from the sympodial rhizome system are of successively increasing order, and more than one new rhizome may be produced from the lateral buds of the existing rhizome (Wong 1995).

There are four subtypes of rhizome system: 1) sympodial - tufted: not the runner type, rhizomes do not elongate, as in Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, and Gigantochloa, etc.; 2) sympodial - scattered: no buds on the nodes, few or no roots develop; as in Fargesia; 3) Monopodial - scattered: rhizomes are true runners, bud at the culm develops into runner, as in Phyllostachys; and 4) Amphipodial - mixed: rhizome elongates to form true runner and bud at culm base can grow into new culm as in Indocalamus (Fig. 1) and (Table 1).

Fig. 1. The types of rhizome

1. Sympodial - tufted; 2. Sympodial - scattered; 3. Amphipodial - mixed; and 4. Monopodial - scattered
Table 1. Rhizome types in bamboo genera

Rhizome type

Bamboo genera

Sympodial - tufted

Ampelocalamus, Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Chimonocalamus, Dendrocalamopsis, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gaoligongshania, Gigantochloa, Melocalamus, Neosinocalamus, Racemobambos, Schizostachyum, Teinostachyum, Thamnocalamus, Thyrsostachys

Sympodial - scattered

Fargesia, Yushania, Pseudostachyum

Monopodial - scattered

Bashania, Ferrocalamus, Indosasa, Pleioblastus, Phyllostachys, Sinobambusa

Amphipodial - mixed

Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus, Qiongzhuea


Distribution and habitat

Ecological distribution of bamboos is related to the annual precipitation and temperature of the area where they grow. Other environmental factors are also related with growth of bamboo, such as latitude, altitude, soil, and so on. High temperatures accelerate bamboo growth and low temperatures inhibit the growth rate (Uchimura 1987). The monopodial bamboo species, such as Phyllostachys, Indosasa, Chimonobambusa, and Pseudostachyum, are mainly distributed in temperate regions and some on highlands of the subtropical area. The sympodial type, such as Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Gigantochloa, Schizostachyum, Cephalostachyum, Thyrsostachys, and others grow in the tropical areas. Hui (1990) reported the community type, colony structure and dynamics of Dendrocalamus membranaceus based on the ecology and phytocology. Wang and Hsueh (1994) discussed the distribution and environment of natural and cultivated bamboos in Xishuangbanna. Yang (1997) studied the shoot emergence and forest development of Schizostachyum funghomii McClure, including variation in culm size, form, weight, wall thickness and the water content. Distribution and utilization of bamboos in Yunnan was discussed by Hsueh et al. Some of the mainpoints of such studies are summarized (Tables 2, 3, and 4).

Some of the small-sized bamboos grow as epiphytes on tree trunks and others occasionally exhibit tree form due to closeness of culm growth (Figs. 2-4).

Table 2. The major bamboo forest types in Yunnan, Southwest China

Types of forest

Nature of vegetation

Species

Distribution

Temperate bamboo forest

Small-sized & mixed

 

Fargesia spp.

Alpine and subalpine areas in W. and NW. Yunnan

Yushania spp.

Widespread distribution in Subtropical medium-alpine areas

Sub-tropical bamboo forest

Medium-sized & scattered

Chimonobambusa spp.

Widespread distribution

Qiongzhuea tumidinoa

Yongshan, Danguang, Yiliang, Zhenxiong

Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis

Centre and South Yunnan

Medium-sized & mixed

Fargesia yunnanensis

Mountainous areas in W. and C. Yunnan

Large-sized & scattered

Phyllostachys pubescens

Yiliang, Yanjin

Large-sized & clustered

 

Bambusa intermedia

The plains and river valleys in C. and S. Yunnan

Neosinocalamus affinis

Widespread distribution in the plains of C. Yunnan

Tropical bamboo forest

Small-sized & viny

Teinostachyum spp.

Xichou, Guangnan, Jinping, Mengla

Medium-sized & viny

 

Melocalamus campactiflorus

Honghe, Xishuangbanna, Lincang, Dehong

Dinochloa spp.

Xishuangbanna, Dehong, Lincang

Medium-sized & scattered

Indosasa purpurea

Wenshan, Honghe

I. singulispicula

Xishuangbanna

Pseudostachyum polymorphum

Xishuangbanna, Dehong

Ferrocalamus strictus

Jinping, Luchun, Yuanyang

Medium-sized & clustered

 

Chimonocalamus spp.

SE. and SW. Yunnan

Schizostachyum pinbianensis

Pingbian, Malipo, Maguan

Large-sized & scattered

Indosasa sinicus

SE. and SW. Yunnan

Large-sized & clustered

Dendrocalamus membranaceus

Xishuangbanna, Dehong, Honghe

D. giganteus

Widespread distribution in S. Yunnan

Dendrocalamus barbatus

South and Southwest Yunnan

D. sikkimensis

Hekou, Jinping

D. yunnanensis

Widespread distribution in S. Yunnan

Gigantochloa spp.

Xishuangbanna, Dehong, Menglian, Lancang

Bambusa lapidea

S. Yunnan

B. sinospinosa

Lower lands in SE. and S. Yunnan

Schizostachyum funghomii

The muggy areas in SE. and SW. Yunnan

Cephalostachyum pergracile

Xishuangbanna, Dehong, Lincang, Ximao

Thyrsostachys siamenensis

Xishuangbanna, Dehong


Table 3. Habitats and geographic distribution of bamboo genera

Genera

Distribution

Habitats

Types

Ampelocalamus

NE

Tropical lower mountainous area

VII

Bambusa

C to S

Tropical and subtropical plains and river valleys

I

Bashania

NE and C

Subtropical medium mountain area

VII

Cephalostachyum

S to W

Tropical, humid, and medium mountainous area

III

Chimonobambusa

Widespread distribution

Temperate to subtropical medium mountainous area

VI

Chimonocalamus

SE to SW

Subtropical medium to higher mountainous area

IV (1)

Dendrocalamopsis

S

Cultivation

IV (1)

Dendrocalamus

Widespread distribution

Tropical and subtropical, medium mountain to lower lands

IV

Dinochloa

S

Tropical lower river valleys

IV

Fargesia

NW and W

Alpine and subalpine areas

V

Ferrocalamus

SE

Tropical medium mountainous area

VII

Gaoligongshania

W

Medium mountainous area

VII

Gigantochloa

S, and SW

Tropical lower land and mountainous areas

III

Indocalamus

S

Subtropical, humid lower mountainous area

III

Indosasa

SE, and S

Subtropical medium mountainous area

IV (2)

Melocalamus

SE, S, and SW

Tropical medium to lower mountain, and river banks

IV (1)

Neosinocalamus

C to S

Cultivation in subtropical area

IV (1)

Phyllostachys

Widespread Distribution

Temperate to subtropical medium mountainous area

VI

Pleioblastus

S, and SE

Subtropical medium mountainous areas

VI

Pseudostachyum

S, and SW

Subtropical medium to higher mountainous area

IV (1)

Qiongzhuea

NE

Temperate higher mountain

VII

Racemobambos

W

Cold higher mountain area

II

Schizostachyum

SE to SW

Tropical lower mountain areas

III

Sinobambusa

SE

Temperate, medium mountainous area

VI

Teinostachyum

SE, and S

Tropical lower mountainous area

IV (1)

Thamnocalamus

W

Temperate higher mountainous area

VI

Thyrsostachys

S, and SW

Tropical lower lands

IV (1)

Yushania

Widespread distribution

Subtropical, higher mountain

III

Notes:
1. Distribution: C - Centre Yunnan; E - East Yunnan; NE - Northeast Yunnan; NW - Northwest Yunnan; S - South Yunnan, SE - Southeast Yunnan; SW - Southwest; W -West Yunnan.

2. Types: I - Trop. Asia, Africa & C. To S. Amer. disjuncted; II - Trop. Asia & Trop. Australasia; III -Trop. Asia to Trop. Africa; IV - Trop. Asia (Indo - Malesia), 1 - Trop. India to S. China (esp. S. Yunnan), 2 - Vietnam (or Indo - Chinese Peninsula) to S. China (or SW. China); V - C Asia to Himalaya & S. W. China; VI - E Asia; and VII - Endemic to China.

Table 4. Species distribution and altitudinal variations

Botanical Name

Distribution

Ampelocalamus menglaensis

S: Mengla.

A. saxatilis

NE: Weixin, 1000-1200m

A. yongshanensis

NE: Yongshan, 660 m

Bambusa annulata (Schizostachyum. a.)

E: Luoping, 1000 m

B. blumeana

S, SE, and E: Mengla, Yuanyang, Jinping, and Luoping

B. burmanica

W: Ruili, Longchuan, and Yingjiang

B. cerosissima

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. chungii

S, C, and SE: Wenshan, Mengla, and Kunming

B. dissemulator

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. distegia (Neosinocalamus b.)

S: Mengla; 580 m

B. eutuldoides

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. gibba

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. gibboides

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. intermedia

W, SE, E, NE, and C

B. lapidea

S, SW, W, and C: Xishuangbanna, Simao, Lincang, Dehong, Baoshan, Dali, and Zhuxiong

B. glaucescens

Widespread cultivation

B. glaucescens cv. alphonse

Widespread cultivation

B. glaucescens cv. fernleaf

Widespread cultivation

B. nutans

SW: Gengma

B. pallida

SW: Yingjiang

B. pervariabilis

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. piscaporum

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. polymorpha

S: Mengla

B. prominens

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. rigida

E, and SE: Yiliang, Guangnan, Pingbian, and Malipo

B. rutila

SE

B. sinospinosa

SW, S, SE and NE: Dehong, Xishuangbanna, Honghe, Wenshan, and Zhaotong

B. subaequalis

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. textilis

Cultivation in S: Mengla

B. textilis var. gracilis

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. tulda

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. tuldoides

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

B. ventricosa

Widespread cultivation

B. vulgaris

S, and SE: Mengla, Simao, and Jinping

B. vulgaris cv. vittata

Cultivation in W, S, E to C

B. vulgaris cv. wamin

Cultivation in S: Xishuangbanna and Simao

B. yunnanensis (Neosinocalamus y.)

W: Tengchong

Bashania faberi

NE: Qiaojia

B. fargesii

Cultivation in C: Kunming

Cephalostachyum fuchsianum

S, and W: Jinghong, Menghai, Shuangjiang, Tengchong, and Fugong; 1200-2000 m

C. pallidum

SW: Luxi, Longling, and Yingjiang; 1200-2000 m

C. pergracile

S to SW: Xishuangbanna, Lincang, and Dehong

C. virgatum

SW: Luxi, and Ruili

C. scandens

W to SW: Fugong, Lushui, Tengchong, Longling, Yingjiang, and Gengma

Chimonobambusa armata

W: Gongshan, Fugong, Lushui, and Tengchong; 1500-2000 m

Ch. brevinoda

SE: Malipo, Maguan, and Xichou; 1500-2100m.

Ch. grandifolia

SE: Dawei Mountain, Pingbian; 1500 m

Ch. microfloscula

SE: Jinping, and Pingbian; 1400-1800 m

Ch. pachystachys

NE: Yiliang, Fuyuan, and Zhengxiong; 900-2000 m

Ch. paucispinosa

NE: Suijiang

Ch. tuberculata

NE: Yongshan, Yanjin, and Weixin; 1350-2000m.

Ch. utilis

NE: Yiliang; 1800m.

Ch. yunnanensis

SE, S, and W: Luchun, Yuanyang, Gejiu, Guangnan, Menghai, Yingjiang, Luxi, and Baoshan; 1600-2000m.

Chimonocalamus delicatus

SE: Jinping; 1400-2000 m

Ch. dumosus

SE: Xichou; 1500 m

Ch. dumosus var. pygmaeus

SW: Gengma

Ch. fimbriatus

SW: Gengma, Shuangjiang, Changning, Longling, Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, and Yingjiang

Ch. griffithianus (Ch. tortuosus)

SW: Yingjiang

Ch. longiligulatus

S: Luchun, and Jiangcheng; 1100-1300 m

Ch. longiusculus

SE: Xichou; 1650 m

Ch. makuanensis

SE: Maguan; 1700-1900 m

Ch. montanus

W: Tengchong; 1740 m

Ch. pallens

S: Jinping and Yuanyang

Dendrocalamopsis beecheyana

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

D. beecheyana var. pubescens

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

D. oldhami

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

D. vario-striata

Cultivation in S: Mengla, 580 m

Dendrocalamus asper

SW and S: Dehong and Xishuangbanna

D. bambusoides

C to SE: Kunming, Yuxi, Jianshui, and Yuanyang; 200-1900m

D. barbatus

S to SE: Xishuangbanna, Jiangcheng, Gengma, and Jinping; 360-1100 m

D. barbatus var. internodirradicalus

S: Mengla; 600-1000 m

D. birmanicus

W to SW: Tengchong, Luxi, and Yingjiang; 800-1000 m

D. brandisii

SE, S and SW: Jinping, Xinping, Xishuangbanna, Jiangcheng, Gengma, Ximeng; 600-1300 m

D. calostachyus

S: Jinghong, and Menghai; 800-1400 m

D. farinosus

C to E: Luquan, Fumin, Wuding, and Luoping

D. fugongensis

W: Fugong, and Weixi; 1200-1800 m

D. giganteus

Widespread cultivation in S, W to C; 500-1500 m

D. hamiltonii

S: Xishuangbanna; 500-1400 m

D. jianshuiensis

SE: Jianshui, and Yuanyang; 800-1500 m

D. latiflorus

SE, S to C: Xichou, Hekou, Maguan, Mengla, and Kunming; 150-2000 m

D. membranaceus

S to SE: Xishuangbanna, Lincang, Simao, and Honghe; <1000 m

D. membranaceus f. fimbriligulatus

S: Mengla; 580 m

D. membranaceus f. pilosus

S: Jinghong, and Mengla; 580-900 m

D. membranaceus f. striatus

S: Jinghong, and Mengla; 580-1400 m

D. pachystachys

C to SE: Chengjiang, Xinping, Jinping, Yuanyang, and Wenshan; 1000-1600 m

D. parishii

W: Fugong; 1300 m

D. patellaris

W and SE: Yingjiang, Ruili, Longling, Gengma, Luchun, Yuanyang, and Jianshui; 1400-1800 m

D. peculiaris

SE and S: Jinping, Mengla, and Jinghong; 1000-1200 m

D. semiscandens

SW to S: Yingjiang, Longling, Longchuan, Ruili, Lancang, Ximeng, and Mengla; 900-1300 m

D. sikkimensis

SE to S: Hekou, Jinping, and Mengla; 130-600 m

D. sinicus

S: Mengla, Menghai, Gengma, Cangyuan; 600-1000 m

D. strictus

S: Jinghong, and Mengla; 580-1400 m

D. tibeticus

W: Lushui, 1200-1700m

D. tomentosus

SW: Cangyuan; 800 m

D. yunnanicus

SE to S: Luoping, Gejiu, Jinping, Yuanyang, Hekou, and Mengla; 80-800 m

Dinochloa multiramora

SE to S: Jinping, Jiangcheng, and Mengla

Fargesia acuticouiracia

W: Weixi and Gongshan; 2000-3000 m

F. altior

W: Tengchong; 2300-2500 m

F. aurita

W: Lushui; 2650 m

F. caduca

SW: Jinggu; 1830 m

F. circinata

SW: Changning

F. communis

NW: Lijiang, Weixi, Yangbi, and Gongshan

F. confracta

W: Lushui, and Baoshan; 2000-3000 m

F. confracta var. evacuata

W: Lushui, and Gongshan; 2200 m

F. confracta var. fugongensis

W: Fugong; 2800-3000 m

F. declivis

W: Gongshan; 2450 m

F. dura

NW: Weixi; 3200 m

F. edulis

W: Lushui, Yunlong, and Baoshan; 2100-2800 m

F. fractiflexa

NW to C: Lijiang, Eryuan, Binchuan, Zhongdian, and Dayao

F. frigida

NW: Yangbi; 3100-3700 m

F. fungosa

E to C: Dongchuan, Huize, and Liliang; 1800-2700 m

F. gongshanensis

W: Gongshan; 1450 m

F. hsuehiana

SE: Jinping; 2000 m

F. hygrophila

C: Dayao; 1600-3000 m

F. lincangensis

S: Lincang; 2900-3200 m

F. lushuiensis

W: Lushui; 1780 m

F. longiuscula

NE: Yongshan; 1480 m

F. macrophylla

W: Fugong; 1950 m

F. mairei

C: Dayao; 2950-3600 m

F. nujiangensis

W: Nujiang; 2600-3200 m

F. nujiangensis var. hirinoda

W: Lushui; 2100 m

F. nujiangensis var. lanpingensis

W: Lanping; 2900-3000 m

F. nujiangensis var. striata

W: Gongshan; 2500-2600 m

F. orbiculata

NW: Lijiang; 3850 m

F. pachyclada

W: Lushui; 2800 m

F. pallens

W: Lushui; 2000 m

F. pagyrifera

W: Lushui, and Gongshan, and Yunlong; 2750-3600 m

F. perlonga

C: Kunming; 1900 m

F. pleniculmis

W: Gongshan; 2500-3000 (3820) m

F. plurisetosa

S: Menghai; 1500 m

F. porphyea

SE: Wenshan, and Maguan; 1250-2500 m

F. pracilus

W: Gongshan; 1850-2600 m

F. sagittatinea

W: Gongshan; 2450-2900 m

F. semicoriaces

NE: Dongchuan; 2000-3000 m

F. similaris

NW

F. solida

W: Tengchong; 2300-2500 m

F. stricta

W: Lushui; 2300 m

F. strigosa

S: Lincang; 2900 m

F. subflexuosa

W: Yangbi; 2810-3100 m

F. sylvestris

NW: Deqing; 3250 m

F. tenuilignea

W to SW: Fengqing, Zhenkang, and Shuangjiang; 2810-3100m

F. utilis

NE: Dongchuan; 2700-3650 m

F. wuliangshanensis

W: Jingdong; 3000-3500 m

F. yuanjiangensis

C: Yuanjiang and Kunming

F. yulongshanensis

NW: Lijiang; 3050-4200 m

F. yunnanensis

C to NW: Kunimng, Dayao, Fengqing, Changning, Binchuan, Eryuan, and Lijiang

Ferrocalamus strictus

SE: Jinping, Yuanyang, and Luchun; 900-1200 m

Gigantochloa albociliata

S: Menghai and Mengla; 500-800 m

G. felix

S: Menghai; 1160-1350 m

G. levis

S: Mengla; 580-1000 m

G. ligulata

S: Mengla, and Jinghong; 450-800 m

G. nigrociliata

S: Xishuangbanna; 500-1600

G. parviflora

S: Menghai, and Mengla; 580-1460 m

Gaoligongshania megathyrsa

W: Gaoligongshan; 1600-2200 m

Indocalamus hirtinosus

S: Jiangcheng

I. latifolius

C: Kunimng; 1900 m

I. longiauritus

SE: Xichou

Indosasa amara

S: Jiangcheng; 1100 m

In. hispida

S: Jinghong, Mengla; 500-1000 m

In. ingens

SE: Maguan; 900-1600 m

In. purpurea

SE: Maguan, Malipo, Hekou, Pingbian, Jinping, Yuanyang, Luchun; 1000-1700 m

In. singulispicula

S: Xishuangbanna; 500-1600 m

In. sinica

SE, S and SW: Hekou, Luchun, Jiangcheng, Xishuangbanna, Lincang, and Dehong; 400-1500 m

In. triangulata

SE: Maguan; 1200 m

Melocalamus errectus

SE to SW: Malipo, Hekou, Jinping, Yuanyang, Luchun, Lancang, Jiangcheng, Shuangjiang, and Cangyuan; 750-1900 m

M. compactiflorus

W to S: Yingjiang, and Jinghong; 1000-1600 m

M. fimbriatus

S: Jinghong, Menghai, Menglian, Lancang, and Yingjiang; 1000-1700 m

M. scandens

S: Jiangcheng, and Simao; 750-1100 m

Neosinocalamus affinis

Widespread cultivation <1900 m

N. affinis cv. flaridorivens

Cultivation in S: Mengla; 580 m

Pleioblastus amarus

C to S: Kunming and Mengla.

Pl. oleosus

C: Kunming

Pseudostachyum polymorphum

S to SW, 100-1400 m

Phyllostachys arcana

C to SE: Xundian, Chenggong, Mengzi, Maguan; 1500-2000 m

Ph. aurea

Widespread cultivation

Ph. bambusoides

NE to SE: Yongshan, Daguan, Zhaotong, Kunming, and Gejiu; 1150-1700 m

Ph. decora (Ph. mannii)

Widespread cultivation

Ph. glauca

C: Yuxi, and Kunming; 2200 m

Ph. heteroclada

NE: Zhengxiong

Ph. kwangisiensis

Cultivation in C: Kunming

Ph. meyeri

C and SE: Kunming, Anning, Xichou, and Maguan; 1300-1800m

Ph. nidularia

NE: Yongshan

Ph. nigra

Widespread cultivation

Ph. nigra var. henonis

C: Chenggong, Kunming

Ph. praecox

C: Kunming

Ph. pubescens

NE to C: Yiliang, Yanjin, and Kunming

Racemobambos prainii

W: Longling, Tengchong, and Lushui; 1500-2000 m

R. yunnanensis

W

Qiongzhuea tumidinoda

NE: Gaguan, Yongshan, Yiliang, and Suijiang; 1600-2200 m; Cultivation in Kunming

Q. montigena

NE: Zhaotong; 2320-2500 m

Schizostachyum chinensis

SE to S: Mengzi, Pingbian, Jinping, Menghai, and Shuangjiang; 1500-2500 m

Schizostachyum funghomii

SE to S <1000 m

S. jiangchengensis

S: Jiangcheng, 400-500 m

S. pingbianensis

SE: Pingbian, 1740 m

S. pseudolima

SE to S: Maguan, Jinping, Menghai, and Mengla; <1000 m

S. sanguieum

SE

Sinobambusa intermedia

SE: Wenshan

S. seminuda

E: Luoping

Teinostachyum yunnanensis

SE: Wenshan

Thamnocalamus tengchongensis

W: Tengchong, and Yunlong; 2530-3100 m

Thyrsostachys oliveri

S: Xishuangbanna, 580 m

Th. siamensis

S: Xishuangbanna, Lancang, and Longchuan

Yushania andropogonoides

E: Luoping, 2050 m

Y. bojieiana

SE: Jinping, 2150-2300 m

Y. brevis

SE: Luchun, 2000 m

Y. crassicollis

C: Xinping, 2450-2600 m

Y. elevata

W: Tengchong, 2000-2300 m

Y. elevata var. pianmaensis

W: Lushui, 2100 m

Y. falcatiaurita

W: Tengchong, 1710 m

Y. flexa

SE: Luchun

Y. forcticaulis

W: Gongshan, 1900-2800 m

Y. forcticaulis var. brevinoda

W: Fugong, 2200 m

Y. glandulosa

SW to W: Yingjiang, and Lushui; 1800-2400 m

Y. grammata

NE: Weixin, 1270 m

Y. laetevirens

Northeastern: Suijiang

Y. levigata

SW: Fengqing, Lincang, Jinggu, and Changning; 2300-3000 m

Y. longiuscula

SE: Mengzi, 2100-2800 m

Y. maculata

E: Dongchuan, 1800-2700 m

Y. menghaiensis

S: Menghai, 2300 m

Y. mitis

NE: Yongshan, 1800-2500 m

Y. multirama

E: Luoping, 2320-2550 m

Y. oblonga

SE: Wenshan, 2600-3000 m

Y. pauciramificans

C: Xinping, 2510 m

Y. polytricha

W and C: Baoshan, and Kunming; 1900-2300 m

Y. pubenula

W to C: Lanping, Tengchong, Baoshan, and Kunming; 1900-2650 m

Y. qiaojiaensis

NE: Qiaojia, 3100 m

Y. straminea

NE: Yongshan

Y. suijiangensis

NE: Suijiang

Y. vigens

W: Baoshan, 1950-2500 m

Y. violascens

NW: Lijiang, and Yangbi; 2440-3400 m

Y. weixiensis

W: Weixi, 2200-2300 m

Note: C - Centre Yunnan; E - East Yunnan; NE - Northeast Yunnan; NW - Northwest Yunnan; S - South Yunnan, SE - Southeast Yunnan; SW - Southwest; W - West Yunnan.
The details summarized in the above tables provide useful information on species distribution, the geographic areas and resources available in different parts of Yunnan.

References

Hui, C. 1990. Study on the natural community of Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro. Journal of Bamboo Research 9(4):24-38.

McClure, F.A. 1966. The Bamboos - a Fresh Perspective. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Uchimura, E. 1987. Growth environment and characteristics of some tropical bamboos. Bamboo Journal No. 4:51-60.

Wang, K. and C. Hsueh. 1994. A preliminary study on geographical distribution and types of bamboo forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Guihaia 14(2):144-150.

Wong, K.M. 1995. The Bamboos of Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Forest Record, No. 41.

Xue, J., Y. Yang, C. Hui and R. Li (eds.). 1995. Bamboo Resources in Yunnan and their Exploitation and Utilization. Yunnan Press of Sciences and Technology, Kunming, China.

Yang, Y. 1997. A study on biological characteristics and individual structure of Schizostachyum funghomii. Journal of Bamboo Research 16(2):8-20.

Fig. 2 Epiphytic bamboo.

Fig. 3 Epiphytic bamboo showing gregarious habit.

Fig. 4 Bamboo clump, shaped like a tree.


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