Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Bamboo distribution and utilization - Yang Yuming1, Wang Kanglin2 and Hui Chaomao1

1 Vice President and Director. Southwest Forestry College, Kunming, China
2 Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Science., Kunming 650204, China
Introduction

Bamboos are mainly distributed in tropical, subtropical zones on the earth, and tropical monsoon region. Yunnan province includes all the three types of regions. Because of overlaying mountains, rivers, different altitudes, complex topography, diverse climate types have helped the growth and richness of the bamboo flora of Yunnan.

More than 200 species and 27 genera of bamboos are distributed in Yunnan. The distribution of various bamboo genera in S.E. Asia and Yunnan are compared (Table 1).

Bamboo resources and distribution

Types of bamboo forests and their distribution

Main bamboo forest types are not less than 30. The main and subforest types, natural features of the areas and main species present in each are summarized (Table 2, 3). The area of natural and manmade bamboo forest in Yunnan is about 331 000 ha, 10% of the total bamboo resources in China, and the distribution of natural bamboo forest is the largest among all provinces in China. According to survey and statistical details, large and medium natural bamboo forests (bamboo diameter not less than 3 cm) cover 189 000 ha, mainly in South Yunnan (covering 154 000 ha). Small bamboo forests (diameter under 3 cm) cover 112 000 ha, mainly distributed in Western and Northwestern subalpine and alpine regions of Yunnan.

Bamboos are commonly cultivated around villages, fields, roads, and other areas and the total area covered is about 30 000 ha. The bamboo shoot production from large and medium natural bamboo forests is estimated to be 40 000-50 000 tons annually and the fresh weight of shoots produced average about 212-264 kg ha-1. Production from planted bamboo is about 15 000 tons, total of both is approximately 55 000-65 000 tons per year. The total standing culm volume (in green weight) of the large and medium natural bamboo forest is estimated to be 17-19 million tons, averaging 90-100 t ha-1, where the annual culm output of planted bamboos is about 72 000-84 000 tons and total production of both would reach 4 920 000-5 540 000 tons.

Resource utilization

Shoots of many bamboo species are edible. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii is mostly found in the tropical zone of Yunnan, and is very widely planted. The shoots, are thick soft and fleshy, tasting delicious and favoured by natives for fresh food. They are also very suitable for canning.

Schizostachyum spp. distributed in the southeast of Yunnan produces shoots from early spring to late summer. S. pinbinensis can produce large a number of tender, delicious shoots all year round. The culm can be used for weaving. Qiongzhuea tumidinoda in northeast of Yunnan generates high quality bamboo shoots in large numbers which is suitable for export. Several species of Chimonocalamus spp. are famous for their fragrance and fat content. Many species of Chimonobambusa, Fargesia, Yushania are distributed widely and produce shoots in autumn.

Dendrocalamus membranaceus production averages more than 100 t ha-1. Culms are suitable for making paper and weaving. Cephalostachyum pergracile is used by Dai people to cook fragrant rice and is also used to make farm tools.

Indosasa sinica forest covers 20 000 ha in the southeastern part of Yunnan and provides excellent material for buildings, furniture, man-made board, paper, weaving, chopsticks and edible bamboo shoots. It is named as “Yunnan Phyllostachys pubescens”.

Small bamboo species of Fargesia and Yushania cover 100 000 ha, distributed mainly in the west and northwest of Yunnan. The output, over 45 t ha-1, provides excellent material for making paper, bamboo string, door curtain and common tools. Bamboo shoots are eaten either fresh or dried. There are many climbing bamboo species in the tropical zone of southern Yunnan, some are endemic. Their stalks are tender and used in weaving garment and to make ropes. Many other species are underutilized but have great potential to increase its economic value.

The production of bamboo shoots in Yunnan is 55 000-65 000 tons per year, and 33 400-41 600 tons of that can be easily harvested with the total value of 16 700 000-20 000 000 yuan at 0.50 yuan/kg. Only 33 400-41 600 tons are collected and the rest of them are wasted. Bamboo shoots actually utilized in Yunnan do not exceed 15% of 33 400-41 600 tons and only 10% of total collected and only 10% of the total increased are traded.

The utilization of bamboo material is very limited for making daily tools, farm tools, spring board, bamboo fence, and paper. About 70 000 big and 3 260 000 small culms are used to make chips, bamboo articles and bamboo chopsticks. The largest use of bamboo material is for making paper, which uses 25 000-30 000 tons as bamboo material collected every year in Yunnan province. The total output of bamboo culms is 1 million tons per year. Out of that, 5 million tons are for trade and 1 million tons are used for making paper. More support is needed from different quarters to increase the production of various articles.

Table 1. Genera and species of bamboo in Yunnan

Genera

Type1

 

Species number

Ratio (%)3

World

China4

Yunnan5

Uses6

W

C

Y2

Melocanna

A

1

1

1

100%

Burma China

GD, GX, YN

WS

W, P

Schizostachyum

F

70

10

4

40%

SE. Asia

YN, GD, HN, TW, JX

WS, HH, SM, BN, DH, LC, LP

S, W, P, O

Pseudostachyum

B

1

1

1

100%

China Burma India

YN, GX

South to Southwest

V, S, W

Cephalostachyum

D

12

5

5

100%

China India Burma Malaysia

YN

BN, DH, BS, LC

W, F, O, S

Thyrsostachys

A

2

2

2

100%

Thai China India Burma

YN, FJ, GD, TW

BN, DH

B, T, O, S

Melocalamus

B

5

5

5

100%

China Burma

YN, GX, XZ

BN, DH, LC, HH, SM

W, T

Dinochloa

A

20

2

2

100%

China Malaysia

YN, HaN

The edge of south

W, T

Neomicrocalamus

H

3

3

2

67%

China

XZ, YN

DH


Bambusa

D

100

64

28

44%

Asia Africa

S. & W. of China

Trop. to subtrop. area

B, W, S

Dendrocalamopsis

H

10

10

3

30%

China

S. & SW. of China

BN

W, S, B

Neosinocalamus

B

3

2

2

100%

China

S., SW of China

Widely planting

W, S, B

Dendrocalamus

A

35

30

24

80%

China SE. Asia

YN, GD, GX, SC, GZ, FJ, TW

Tropical to subtropical areas

S, B, W, T

Gigantochloa

F

30

9

9

100%

China

YN, HK

BN, DH, LC

S, B, W

Indosasa

C

16

16

6

38%

China Japan Vietnam

YN, GX, GD, GZ, HN, ZJ

WS, HH, SM, BN, LC, DH

P, F, S, B

Sinobambusa

E

17

13

2

15%

China Japan Vietnam

GZ, YN, ZJ, FJ, GD, GX

WS, LP

B, W, O

Phyllostachys

E

70

48

14

29%

China Japan India Burma

S. part of Yangtz river

Widely distributed

S, O, W, T

Chimonobambusa

E

19

19

8

42%

China Japan Burma India

SE., E., S. & M. of China

NJ, BS, ZT, QJ, HH, WS, BN, DH

w, s, O, F

Qiongzhuea

H

8

8

1

13%

China

YN, GZ, SC

ZT

S, O, A

Chimonocalamus

B

10

9

8

89%

China India Burma

YN, XZ

WS, HH, BN, LC, DH, BS

W, O, S

Drepanostachyum

H

5

5

3

60%

China

YN, SC, GZ, TW

ZT

W, P

Fargesia

B

80

77

41

53%

China Nepal India

YN, XZ, GZ, SC, HN

Wildly mountain of Yunnan

S, F, T

Yushania

D

60

57

22

39%

China India

YN, ZJ, FJ, SC, GX, GZ

LP, HH, WS, BN, LC, DH, BS, LJ, DL

B, S, T

Teinostachyum

C

6

2

2

100%

India China Sik-kim

YN

WS, HH, BN

W, T

Pleioblastus

E

20

18

3

17%

China Japan

YN, FJ, GZ, ZJ, GD, SC

KM, ZT

B, F W

Bashania

H

4

4

2

50%

China

YN, SC, HB, SX

KM

B, O

Ferrocalamus

H

1

1

1

100%

China

YN

HH

W, Ba

Indocalamus

A

30

23

4

17%

SE. & S. of Asia

YN, SC, JX, GZ, GD, GX

SM, WS, LJ

S, T, F

Note:
1. Type:
A - Trop. Asia (Indo-Malaysia)
B -Trop. India to S. China (esp. S. Yunnan)
C - Vietnam (or Indo-Chinese peninsula) to S. China
D - Trop. Asia, Africa to S. America
E - Trop. Asia & E. Africa or Madagascar disjuncted
F - Trop. Asia to Trop. Africa
H - Endemic
2. W - World; C - China; Y - Yunnan

3. Ratio % species in Yunnan/species of China X 100%

4. Province of China: FJ - Fujian; GD - Guangdong; GX - Guangxi; GZ - Guizhou; HK -Hongkong; HaN - Hainan; JX - Jiangxi; HN - Hunan; SC - Sichuan; TW - Taiwan; XZ -Tibet; YN - Yunnan; ZJ - Zeijiang

5. Area of Yunnan: BN - Xishuangbanna; BS - Baoshan; CX - Chuxiong; DH - Dehong; DL - Dali; DQ - Diqing; HH - Honghe; KM - Kunming; LC - Linchang; LJ - Lijiang; LP -Luoping; NJ - Nujiang; QQ - Qujing; SM - Simao; WS - Wenshan; YX - Yuxi; ZT - Zhaotong

6. Uses: A - Art; B - Building; Bo - Bow and Arrow; F - Furniture; O - Ornament; P -Papermaking; S - Shoot; T - Tool; W - Weaving; V - substitute for Vine

Table 2. Main Types of Bamboo Forest in Yunnan, China

Forest Vegetation subtype

Type

Stalk type*

Distribution in Yunnan

Habit

Cold temp. bamboo forest

Fargesia spp. forest

MiA

Alpine and sub-alpine in N. & NW

Natural

Warm bamboo

Yushania spp. forest

MiA

Widely distributed in subtropical C.

Natural

Fargesia yunnanensis forest

MeA

distributed in mountain in C.& S.

Natural & introduced

Chimonobambusa spp. forest

MeM

Widely distributed

Natural

Qiongzhuea tumidinoda forest

MeM

Yongshan, Daguan, Yuliang, Zhengxiong

Natural

Neosinocalamus affinis forest

MaS

Widely planted in Center

Introduced

Bambusa intermedia forest

MaS

basin, river and valley in C. & S.

Natural & introduced

Phyllostachys pubescens forest

MaM

Yuliang, Yuanjin

Natural & introduced

Ph. nigra var. henonis forest

MeM

Widely cultivated in C. & S.

Introduced

Teinostachyum spp. forest

MiL

Xichou, Jingping, Mengla, Guannan

Natural

Hot bamboo forest

Chimonocalamus spp. forest

MeS

SE & SW

Natural

Dendrocalamus membranaceus forest

MaS

Lanchang river, Honghe, Dehong

Natural

D. giganteus forest

MaS

Widely cultivated in South

Introduced & natural

D. yunnanensis forest

MaS

Widely cultivated in South

Introduced & natural

D. sikkimensis forest

MaS

Hekou, Jingping, Xishuangbanna

Natural

D. barbatus forest

MaS

Low hot region in S. to SW

Natural & introduced

Bambusa sinospinosa forest

MaS

Dry hot region in SE to SW

Introduced & natural

Schizostachyum fungomii forest

MaS

Moisture region in SE to SW

Natural

S. pingbianensis forest

MaS

Pinbian, Malipo, Maguan

Natural

Cephalostachyum pergracile forest

MaS

Xishuangbanna, Si-mao, Dehong, Lichang

Natural & introduced

Indosasa sinica forest

MaM

SE to SW

Natural

I. purpurea forest

MeM

Wenshan, Honghe

Natural

I. spp. forest

MiM

SE to SW

Natural

Ferrocalamus strictus forest

MeM

Jingping, Luchun, Yuanyan

Natural

Melocalamus compactiflorus forest

MeL

Xishuangbanna, De-hong, Lichang, Honghe

Natural

Pseudostachyum polymorphum forest

MeM

Xishuangbanna, Dehong

Natural

Bambusa lapidea forest

MaS

Southern hot region

Natural

Thyrsostachys siamensis forest

MaS

Xishuangbanna, Dehong

Natural & introduced

Gigantochloa spp. forest

MaS

Xishuangbanna, Lichang, Dehong

Natural & introduced

Dinochloa spp. forest

MaL

Xishuangbanna, Lichang, Dehong

Natural

Schizostachyum chinensis forest

MeL

Hekou, Jinping

Natural

Note: Stalk Type: MaM - Macromonopodial type; MaS - Macrosympodial type; MeA - Mesoamphipodial type; MeM - Mesomonopodial type; MeS - Mesosympodial type; MiA - Microamphipoidal type; MiM - Micromonopoidal type
Table 3. Bamboo Forest Division in Yunnan

Forest Region

Natural features

Forest Subregion

Main Species of Bamboo

I. Dendrocalamus membranaceus, D. giganteus macrosympodial type in S. & SW.

North tropical, south subtrop. to medium & low mountain, valley moisture

Xishuangbanna, Lichang-Simao subregion, Dehong & S. Baoshan

Dendrocalamus membranaceus,
D. giganteus,
Cephalostachyum pergracile,
Chimonocalamus spp.,
Gigantochloa spp.,
Melocalamus spp.,
Bambusa spp.,
Pseudostachyum spp.,
Dinochloa spp.,
Chimonocalamus spp.

II. Schizostachyum funghomii, Indosasa spp. macroamphipodial in SE

North tropical to south subtropical medium & low mountain moisture & semimoisture

Honghe, Wenshan, SE of Qujing

Schizostachyum funghomii,
S. chinensis,
Indosasa sinicus,
Bambusa spp.,
Teinostachyum spp.,
Dendrocalamus sikkimensis,
D. yunnanensis,
Chimonobambusa spp.,
Melocalamus spp.,
Chimonocalamus spp.

III. Neosinocalamus affinis, Bambusa intermedia & Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis mesoamphipodial type in Center

Medium sub-tropical tablel and lake basin semimoisture

Kunming, Chuxiong, Yuxi, South of Qujing & East of Dali

Neosinocalamus affinis,
Yushania spp.,
Bambusa intermedia,
Fargesia yunnanensis,
Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis

IV. Chimonobambusa spp., Qiongzhuea tumidinoda mesosympodial type in Northeastern

North sub-tropical medium mountain semimoisture

Zhaotong & north of Qujing

Chimonobambusa spp.,
Qiongzhuea tumidinoda,
Chimonocalamus spp.,
Phyllostachys pubescens,
Fargesia spp. Yushania spp.

V. Fargesia spp., Yushania spp. microamphipodial type in Northwest

Warm temperate zone subhigh & high mountain, semimoisture & dry region & north sub-tropical region

Nujiang, Lijiang & north of Dali

Yushania spp.,
Chimonobambusa spp.,
Fargesia spp.
Neomicrocalamus spp.,
Indocalamus spp.


Previous Page Top of Page Next Page