Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Ethnobotany of bamboos in Yunnan - Pei Shengji1, Wang Kanglin and Chen Sanyang2

1 Division Head, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal

2 Kunming Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences (KIB, CAS), Kunming, China

Introduction

Bamboos, together with several groups of grasses, classified by taxonomists under the subfamily Bambusoideae in the grass family Gramineae, form an important forest resource. About 500 bamboo species that belong to 40 genera have been recorded in China. Of them, more than 200 species that belong to 28 genera have been reported in Yunnan. Therefore Yunnan is one of the regions which has the most bamboo species and most abundant natural bamboo forest resources in the country. Bamboo is a plant of ancient and increasing importance for human beings, known as “the wood of the poor” in India, “the friend of the people” in China, and “the brother” in Vietnam (Piper 1992). As one of the important non-timber forest products, bamboos have been used for many purposes by indigenous communities, such as building material, making baskets and novelty items, and shoots of some species are used as vegetable. It is said that in China there is no life without bamboo.

Yunnan Province is well known for its cultural and biological diversity. Twenty-six different ethnic groups live in this province. Non-timber forest products, including bamboo, rattan, medicinal plants and others have been used widely by indigenous people. Ethnobotanical studies provide a valuable insight into the potential utilization of the abovementioned plant resources. Such information may be used to identify particular species worthy of further investigation, and improvement which contribute towards the local and national development (Johnston and Colquhoun 1996).

The main points discussed in the present paper include: 1) to survey and describe various morpho-taxonomic characteristics of the different bamboo species in study area; 2) to identify and classify the bamboo genera and species based on taxonomic and folk classificatory studies; 3) to document methods of utilization and management of bamboo resources by indigenous communities; and 4) to identify approaches and strategies for sustainable development and conservation.

Studies in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan

Geographically Xishuangbanna is located in the southeast end of the Hengduan mountains - the east appendages of Himalayas; it lies in 21°10'-22°40' N, and 99°55' - 101°50' E with a total area of 1 922 300 ha, among which 94% consists of mountains and hilly terrain; river valleys make up the remaining area. The rainfall is 1138 to 2431 mm and the annual mean temperature varies from 15°C in winter to 22°C in summer. Tropical forests account for 33.8% of the total land cover. The biological resources are so plentiful that Xishuangbanna is known as “the kingdom of wild flora and fauna”, and the home for vast majority of plants and animal species found in China. As a result of complex geomorphology and the three dimensional climate differentiation, a diversified vegetation is found in this area. Bamboo is an important element in the natural vegetation of Xishuangbanna, and it also has been cultivated and used widely.

Bamboo resources and folk classification

There are rich bamboo resources in Xishuangbana. According to the inventory, more than 100 species, varieties and forms belonging to 18 genera have been recorded (Table 1) including many natural bamboo forests in this region, with many species: Dendrocalamus membranaceus, Cephalostachyum pergracile, Pseudostachyum polymorphum, Schizostachyum funghomii, Gigantochloa nigrociliata, Indosasa singulispicula, and so on.

There is a need to recognize and evaluate folk classification. The indigenous people also classify plants based on native knowledge. For example, in Mengsong of Xishuangbanna, the Hani (Aka) people name the bamboo plants, based on production practice, social customs, folk legends, traditional utilization, habit and morphology of plants (Wang 1996; Table 2 and 3).

Indigenous utilization and practices

The interrelationship between the culture of the people and plants is very strong. Many cultural, social and economic factors, including beliefs, customs, habits, religions, and values, etc. have been mixed together along with various uses of plants. Many of them are centuries old reflecting the vast experience and knowledge accumulated both about quality of bamboo species, and the environment they grow. A number of traditional uses and practices of bamboo in Xishuangbanna have been described (Wang et al. 1993). Of these, uses for construction and infrastructure, handicrafts, furniture, agricultural tools, food, medicine, musical instruments, landscaping, ornamentals, folk beliefs and entertainment are important.

Table 1. The genera and species of bamboo in Xishuangbana (Xb)

Genera

Species, varieties, and forms

The ratio of Xb to Yunnan (%)

Distribution

China

Yunnan

Xb

Bambusa

70

19

6, *1, ?2

31.6

Ml, Jh, Mh*

Cephalostachyum

5

5

2

40.0

Mh, Jh

Chimonobambusa

19

8

2, *1

25.0

Mh, Jh

Chimonocalamus

10

9

*1

11.0

Mh, Jh

Dendrocalamus

410

35

26, *29, ?22

74.3

Ml, Mh, Jh

Dinochloa

6

4

3

33.0

Ml, Jh

Fargesia

75

49

1, ?1

2.0

Mh, Jh

Gigantochloa

6

6

5, ?13

83.3

Ml, Mh, Jh

Indosasa

21

7

3, ?1

42.9

Ml, Mh, Jh

Melocalamus

5

5

3, *1, ?1

60.0

Ml, Mh, Jh

Phyllostachys

50

10

3, ?3

30.0

Ml, Mh, Jh

Pleioblastus

10

3

1

33.3

Ml

Pseudostachyum

1

1

1

100.0

Ml, Mh, Jh

Schizostachyum

7

6

3

50.0

Ml, Mh, Jh

Teinostachyum

2

1

?1

100.0

Ml

Thyrsostachys

2

2

2

100.0

Ml, Mh, Jh

Yushania

43

30

1

3.3

Mh

Note:
* - variety and form;? - unidentified species;
Ml - Mengla county, Mh - Menghai county; Jh - Jinghong county.
Table 2. Folk classification of bamboo according to habit and character in Hani community of Xishuangbanna

Hani name

Meaning

Botanical name

a pe

“pe” means big, big bamboo

Dendrocalamus giganteus

a bo

“bo” means wild, “wild bamboo”

Dendrocalamus sp.

a nong

“nong” means thorn, internodes have thorns, and young shoots are good, abundant and dense

Chimonocalamus fimbriatus var. ligulatus

a chu

“chu” means thorn, but the younger shoots grow sparsely

Chimonobambusa yunnanensis var. glabra

a zhu

“zhu” means smooth, culm is smooth

Dendrocalamus strictus

a zhao

“zhao” means similar to “zhu”, but more smooth

Fargesia sp.

a xiao a lan

“xiao” means stripe, “lan” is grayish white, culm gray with stripe

Gigantochloa nigrociliata

a xiao a xiu

“xiu” means green with stripe

Dendrocalamus membranaceus var. strictus

a ye

“ye” means black, culm black

Dendrocalamus sp.

ha ge

“ha” means climbing, “ge” means wild, climbing bamboo that its culm-node is wide

Melocalamus compactiflorus

ha ge a zhou

“zhou” mean narrow, climbing bamboo that its culm-node is narrow

Melocalamus sp.

Jinlan

means bamboo shoots are very dense and abundant

Indosasa sp.


Table 3. Folk classification of bamboo according to utilization

Hani name

Meaning

Botanical name

a qi

“qi” means sweet, bamboo shoot is sweet

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii

a ha

“ha” means bitter, bamboo shoot is bitter

Indosasa singulispicula

a ma

“ma” means flute, bamboo used to make flute

Phyllostachys bambusoides

a miao

“miao” means unseen, it is said “pigs that eat bamboo seeds of this species will die”

Cephalostachyum fuchsianum


Indigenous knowledge (IK) can be seen as a major “tool” to promote culturally strong and appropriate forms of development. This is particularly clear in protection of environment, and natural resource management. The use of traditional knowledge is increasingly recognized as a key to sustainable development. In Xishuangbanna, bamboo garden (Apeya, in Hani language), agroforestry practice, and swidden system is a traditional system for sustainable management and conservation of bamboo resource.

Conservation method

In situ conservation is important to save genetic resources based on the indigenous knowledge system. In Yunnan, the ethnic communities conserve or cultivate bamboo plants in the villages and establish the bamboo garden, which is a very efficient method. The Dai people also plant the multi-purpose bamboo species in the homegarden or near the village, and Hani people establish the bamboo garden (Apeya) or in the swidden system and in “Sangpabawa” protected forest.

Swidden cultivation is practised among all the mountain ethnic groups in the eastern Himalayan region as a traditional system of agriculture (Pei 1997). In Mengsong of Xishuangbanna, the Hani people developed an agroforestry system for management and conservation of bamboo and rattan resources. They cultivate bamboo in the swidden lands, plant rattans near bamboo clumps and around trees for support. Tobacco is cultivated among bamboo clumps. Burned bamboo branches and culms fertilize tobacco.

Ex situ conservation: Ethnobotanical information will be useful to add to the knowledge on living plant collections such as germplasm collections in botanic gardens, herbarium collections, data on vernacular (local) names of plants, indigenous uses of plants, and ecological knowledge on plants. Local management practices on these plants can be valuable for understanding the importance of such plants. Some information, which is newly generated from ethnobotanical studies, will also help botanical gardens to prepare plant lists of new collections (Pei 1994). In Yunnan, the bamboo collection area of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden is important for ex situ conservation of bamboo resources. More than 100 species, varieties and forms of bamboo of 18 genera are maintained as a living collection in the garden.

There are 91 800 ha of natural bamboo forests in Xishuangbanna, and a large area of bamboo/tree mixed forests belongs to the state/communities and individual land owners. They are managed and harvested for bamboo shoots and bamboo culms in such a way as to protect the watersheds and genepools. The traditional harvesting for bamboo shoots and culms from forest lands was sustainable when it was basically harvested for villagers' home consumption, and not for commercial purposes (Pei 1997).

Conclusion

Biodiversity is important because traditional utilization, sustainable management and stable economic development in indigenous communities usually are based on the resource diversity. Cultural diversity and the diversity of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna make a stable and sustainable system in the area. The important areas of biodiversity are also in the inhabited areas. The utilization of indigenous knowledge system as a useful tool can promote the sustainable development of natural resources. The practices followed by indigenous communities indicate effective conservation methods and wise use of the resources in the local, regional, and country levels. Local people's participation in management of natural resources and conservation activities is important to sustainable development, which is based on understanding and cooperation of different beneficiary groups.

References

Johnston, M. and A. Colquhoun. 1996. Preliminary ethnobotanical survey of Kurupukari: an Amerindian settlement of Central Guyana. Economic Botany, 50(2):182-194.

Pei Shengji. 1994. Ethnobotany in the new development of botanic gardens. Pp. 16- 21 in Collected Research Papers on Tropical Botany, No. 2. (Z.F. Xu et al., eds.). Yunnan University Press, Kunming, Yunnan.

Pei Shengji. 1997. Indigenous management of bamboo and rattan resources in the Chinese Himalayan mountains. Pp. 97-107 in The Role of Bamboo, Rattan and Medicinal Plants in Mountain Development. (M. Karki et al., eds.). INBAR Technical Report No. 15.

Piper, J. M. 1992. Bamboo and Rattan: Traditional Uses and Beliefs. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wang Kanglin, Xue Jiru, Chen Sanyang, Pei Shengji and Ai Kanla. 1993: in Collected Research Papers on Tropical Botany, No. 2. (Z.F. Xu et al., eds.). 47-65 Yunnan University Press, Kunming, Yunnan.

Wang Kanglin. 1996. Ethnobotanical studies of bamboo resources in Mengsong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Pp. 124-128 in The Challenge of Ethnobiology in the 21st Century: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Ethnobiology. (Pei Shengji et al., eds.). Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, Yunnan.

Ethnobotanical inventory of bamboo in Xishuangbanna

Source: Wang et. al. 1993

Botanical name

Vernacular name

Utilization

Locality

Voucher no.

Bambusa congesta

Maiben (D)

W

Ml

W87024

B. lapidea

Maipiao (D)

W, T

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3182,
S18067

B. longinoda

Maiheca (D)

W, F

Ml

W3169

B. polymorpha

Maibeng (D)

W, F, B

Ml

W3107

B. sinospinosa

Mainaluan (D)

R, F, W

Ml, Mh

W3032

B. vulgaris

Maibinpiao (D)

O, B, W, M

Ml

W3052

B. vulgaris cv. vittata

Maisanghan (D)

O, B, W, M

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3099

B. sp. 1

Maibenhe (D)

S, W

Ml

W3022

B. sp. 2

Maibenpiao (D)

W

Ml

W87005

Cephalostachyum fuchsianum

Maibao (D), Amiao (H)

W, F, Mu

Mh, Jh

W3172,
T43087

C. pergracile

Maihaolan (D)

C, W, F

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3248,
S21487

Chimonobambusa quadrangularis

Aka (H)

T, B, o

Mh

S21512,
LY4081

Ch. yunnanensis


F, B

Mh

D86058

Ch. yunnanensis var. glabra

Achu (H)

F, B

Jh, Mh

W3175

Chimonocalamus fimbriatus var. ligulatus

Along (H)

B, S

Jh, Mh

W3179

Dendrocalamus albostriatus

Maisangbao (D)

B, F, S

Ml, Mh

W3105

D. albostriatus var. microphyllum

Maisanghai (D)

W, F

Ml

W3029

D. asper

Maihebo (D)

B, F, W, S

Ml, Mh

W3098

D. barbatus

Maisanglang (D)

B, S

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3121,
Hs928

D. barbatus var. auriculatus

Maimakai (D)

F, W, S

Ml

W3116

D. barbatus var. internodiiradicatus

Maibiohahang (D)

B, S

Ml

W3162 HY11151

D. brandisii

Maihelao (D)

S, F, W

Ml, Jh

W3171,
S18037

D. brandisii f. hispiatus

Maihelan (D)

F, W, S

Ml

W3036,
W3050

D. calostachyus

Mailei (D)

B, S, W

Mh, Jh

W3130,
X64116

D. ciliatus

Maihe (D)

B, W, S

Ml

W3114

D. curiosus

Mainakai (D)

B, W, S

Ml

W3043

D. giganteus

Maibo (D), Ape (H) Laoma (Y), Waba (K)

B, W, S, T

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3137,
HY11149

D. giganteus var. pubescens

Maibogaina (D)

B, F, S

Ml, Mh

W3095

D. hamiltonii

Maiwan (D), Aqi (H) Waqieda (K), Debanmiel (Km), Laogan (Y)

S, W, B, P

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3178,
S21504

D. hamiltonii var. serratus

Maihelong (D)

F, W, S, P

Ml, Mh

W3097

D. hookeri

Maihezhang (D)

F, W, S

Mh, Ml

W3078,
W3141

D. laevigatus

Mainiu (D)

B, F, S

Jh, Ml

W3085

D. longilaminis

Maimianlong (D)

W, F, S

Jh, Ml

W3092

D. longilaminis var. bicuspidatus

Maimian (D)

W, S

Ml

W3030

D. longiligulatus

Maihegaihao (D)

F, S

Ml

W3113

D. longiligulatus f. lacanus

Maihemen (D)

W

Ml, Jh

W3109

D. longiligulatus f. striatus

Maiheiaihao (D)

F

Ml

W3112

D. membranaceus

Maisang (D), Kakuda (K), Laowang (Y)

B, P, S, W

Ml, Jh, Mh

W3041,
LD85223

D. membranaceus var. sulcatus

Maisangdaben (D)

S, F, W

Ml

W3125

D. membranaceus bigemmatus

Maisanghai (D)

B, F, W, S

Ml, Jh

W3083

D. membranaceus f. crinitus

Maisanghuan (D)

B, S, W

Ml

W3042

D. membranaceus f. fimbrililigulatus

Maisanghei (D)

B, S, W

Ml

W3124,
LD85204

D. membranaceus f. pilosus

Maisangkou (D)

B, S, W

Ml, Mh

W3154,
LD85222

D. membranaceus f. radicatus

Maisangna (D)

B, F, W, S

Mh, Ml

W3086

D. membranaceus f. striatus

Maisanglai (D) Axioaxiu (H)

B, S, W

Mh, Ml, Jh

W3138,
S18083

D. membranaceus f. strigatus

Mailong (D)

B, F, W, S

Jh, Ml

W3094

D. menghaiensis

Maihesang (D)

F, W, S

Mh, Ml

W3158

D. menglaensis

Maiwanteng (D)

S, F, W

Ml

W3151

D. menglongensis

Maini (D)

B, F, S, W

Jh, Ml

W3147

D. microspikulus


F, W, S

Jh

W86002

D. macrospikulus f. maculatus

Maimana (D)

T, F, W, S

Ml

W3073

D. rubrispikulus


F, W, S

Mh, Ml

W3228

D. osseus

Mainiuying (D)

T, F, W, S

Ml

W3073

D. pecularis

Aye (H)

S, B

Jh

W3135

D. semiscandens

Maihegai (D)

S, W

Ml

W3077,
HC047

D. seruceus

Maiya (D)

P, W, S, T

Mh

HY24603

D. sikkimensis

Maiwuyi (D)

F, W, B, S

Mh, Ml

W3047,
S18057

D. sikkimensis var. tumidus

Maibohong (D)

B, F, S

Mh, Ml

W3049,
W3096

D. sinicus

Maibao (D)

B, S, Fu

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3046,
S18073

D. sinicus var. fimbriligulatus

Maibaogou (D)

D, W, B, S

Ml

W3088

D. sinicus var. striatus

Mailong (D), Rabo (H)

F, W, B, S

Ml

W3104

D. sinicus f. aequatus

Maibohabin (D)

F, B, S

Mh, Ml

W3013

D. strictus

Azhu (H)

B

Jh, Ml

W3089,
W3131

D. yunnanensis

Maibeng (D)

B, F, S

Ml

W3081

D. sp. 1

Maibomao

F, T

Ml

W3006,
W3184

D. sp. 2

Maiboubo

B, S

Ml

W86001

D. sp. 3

Maihegen (D)

B, S, W

Ml

W3080

D. sp. 4

Maiya (D)

B, W, S, F

Jh, Ml

W3055

D. sp. 5


B, W, S

Ml

W3110

D. sp. 6

Abo (H)

B, F

Jh

W3140

D. sp. 7

Maihehongban (D)

F, S

Ml

W3111

D. sp. 8

Maiheten (D)

F, W, S

Ml

W3087

D. sp. 9

Maiheigen (D)

F, W, S

Ml

W3225

D. sp. 10

Maihelang (D)

F, W, S

Ml

W3050

D. sp. 11

Maihe (D)

F, W, S

Mh

W3115

D. sp. 12

Maihegan (D)

F, W, S

Mh

W3157

D. sp. 13

Maibolong (D)

B, F, S

Jh

W3051

D. sp. 14


B, F, S

Mh

W3084

D. sp. 15

Achu (H)

F, S

Mh

W3025

D. sp. 16

Maimianla (D)

F, S

Ml

W3163

D. sp. 17

Maihegen (D)

F, S

Ml

W3079

D. sp. 18

Maiweng (D)

S, F, W

Mh

W3146

D. sp. 19

Maiwanhen (D)

F, S, W

Ml

W3082

D. sp. 20

Maiying (D)

F, W, B, S

Ml

W3246

D. sp. 21

Maiyalai (D)

W, F

Ml

W3159

D. sp. 22

Maihemao (D)

W, F

Ml

W3170

Dinochloa bannensis

Hage (H)

W, T

Jh

W3132

D. strigosus

Hageazhao (H)

W

Jh

W3180

D. tenuiparia


W

Jh

W3224

Fargesia plurisetosa


F, T

Mh

HX82403

F. sp.

Achao (H)

F, T

Jh

W3133

Gigantochloa albociliata

Mailai (D)

P, F, W

Mh

S18069

G. felix

Maiheshua (D)

F, S, W

Ml, Jh

W3164,
W3185

G. ligulata

Maihekan (D)

B, F, W

Ml

W3187

G. nigrociliata

Maishua (D), Axioalan (H), Laomang (Y)

W, B, F, S

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3128,
S14895

G. parviflora

Maibendalian (D)

W, F, S

Mh

WQ75259

G. sp. 1

Maiheshualeng (D)

F, W

Mh, Ml

W3016

G. sp. 2

Mainuohuan (D)

F, S

Ml

W3017

G. sp. 3

Maiheshua (D)

F, W

Jh, Ml

W3018

G. sp. 4

Ashuang (H)

F, W

Jh, Ml

W3103

G. sp. 5

Maigun (D)

F, W, S

Jh, Ml

W3108

G. sp. 6


F, W, Ba

Ml

W3152

G. sp. 7

Maiheshua (D)

F

Jh, Ml

W3190

G. sp. 8

Maisuomen (D)

F, W

Ml

W3195

G. sp. 9

Maishuahei (D)

F

Ml

W3196

G. sp. 10

Maishualai (D)

S, W, F

Ml, Jh

W3197

G. sp. 11

Maishuadadong (D)

S, F, W

Jh, Ml

W87009

G. sp. 12

Yashuang (D)

F, W

Mh, Ml

W87020

G. sp. 13


F

Ml

W87019

Indosasa hispida


S, F

Ml

LD85229

I. singulispicula

Maihong (D), Laoyingzhang (Y), Bokada (K), Aha (H)

S, F

Ml, Mh, jh

HX82830

I. sinicus

Amiu (H)

S, F

Mh

D86026

I. sp.

Jinlan (H)

S, F

Jh

W3139

Melocalamus errectus

Maihang (D)

W

Ml

W3121

M. errectus var. auritus

Maihanglong (D), Laodong (H)

W

Ml

W3122

Melocalamus compactiflorus

Hage (H)

W, T

Jh

LD85201

M. fimbriatus


W, S

Ml, Jh

HC85310

M. sp.

Maikang (D)

W

Ml

W3126

Phyllostachys heteroclada

Maikuan (D)

O

Mh

YY02

Ph. mannii

Maikuan (D), Ama (H)

F, T, O

Jh

W4174,
YY15

Ph. nigra

Maihuanlang (D), Ade'nan (H)

O, M, T

Mh, Ml

W3240,
S14920

Ph. sp. 1

Maibie (D)

Fu, S

Ml

W3090

Ph. sp. 2

Mainuozhi (D)

F, S

Ml

W3148

Ph. sp. 3

Mailianlong (D)

F

Ml

W3149

Pleioblastus amarus


F

Ml

I31622

Pseudostachyum polymorphum

Maiyan (D), Apei (H), Zheluazhang (Y)

Fr, W, S, P

Mh, Jh, MI

W3203,
W3233

Schizostachyum chinensis

Maiyanbenyao (D)

W, S

Mh, Jh

HY11146

S. funghomii

Maihei (D)

Fr, W, S, P

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3075

S. pseudolima

Maihei (D)

Fr, W, S, P

Ml

W3009

Teinostachyum sp.

Mailianggei (D)

F

Ml

W3001

Thyrsostachys oliveri

Maisangdian (D)

O, B, T

Jh, Ml

W3040

T. siamensis

Maihuo (D)

O, B, P, S

Ml, Mh, Jh

W3117

Yushania menghaiensis

Aka (H)

F, T

Mh

Y87021

Notes:
1. Utilization: B - Building material; Ba - Bow and arrow; F - Fencing; Fi - Firecracker material; Fu - Furniture; M - Medicine; Mu - Musical instrument; O - ornament; P - Paper-making; W -Wood.

2. Locality: Ml - Mengla county; Mh - Menghai county: Jh - Jinghong county.

3. Vernacular name: D - Dai people; H - Hani people; K - Kucong people; Km - Kemu people; Y -Yao people.

4. Vouchers: D - Du Fan; HC - Hui Chaomao; HS - Hsueh Chiju; HX - Hu Xigi; HY - Huang Yulin; I - Investigation team; LD - Li Dezhu; LY - Li Yanhui; S - Sun Jiliang; T - Tao guoda; W - Wang Kanglin; WQ - Wang Qiwu; X - Xu Yongchun; Y - Yi Tongpei; and YY - Yan Yan.

(Note the number of Dendrocalamus and Gigantochloa species are yet to be properly identified. nevertheless they are cultivated, harvested and used regularly - Eds).
Fig. 1. Bambusa balcooa

Fig. 2. Bambusa nutans

Fig. 3. Bambusa distegia

Fig. 4. Bambusa polymorpha

Fig. 5. Bambusa pervariabilis

Fig. 6. Bambusa vulgaris cv. vittata

Fig. 7. Dendrocalamus asper

Fig. 8. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii

Fig. 9. Dendrocalamus latiflora

Fig. 10. Dendrocalamus longispathus

Fig. 11. Dendrocalamus laevigatus

Fig. 12. Dendrocalamus membranaceus f. bigemmatus

Fig. 13. Dendrocalamus sikkimensis

Fig. 14. Dendrocalamus giganteus

Fig. 15. Dendrocalamus sinicus

Fig. 16. Dendrocalamus striatus

Fig. 17. Dendrocalamus strictus

Fig. 18. Dendrocalamus yunnanicus

Fig. 19. Gigantochloa albociliata

Fig. 20. Gigantochloa levis

Fig. 21. Gigantochloa nigrociliata

Fig. 22. Thyrsostachys siamensis

Fig. 23. Dendrocalamus giganteus

Bamboo house (for Hani Community) in Mengsong of Xishuangbanna
Marketing of bamboo shoots as vegetable

Fig. 1. Dendrocalamus giganteus

Fig. 2. Indosasa singulispicula

Fig. 3. Indosasa singulispicula

Fig. 4. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii

Fig. 5. Shoots sold in village market

Fig. 6. Indosasa sp.

Fig. 7. Dendrocalamus sp.

Fig. 8. D. giganteus


Previous Page Top of Page Next Page