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Bamboos of Myanmar - Nyan Htun

Ministry of Forestry, Forest Research Institute. Yezin, Myanmar.

Introduction

Myanmar lies between longitudes 92° and 102°E, and 10° and 30°N latitudes. Myanmar has total land area of 676 577 km2, and 50% is covered with forest. There are more than 20 000 species of flowering plants in many forest types depending on localities. These types are: mangrooves, estuarine forests in the delta regions, deciduous forests along the middle mountain ranges (Bago Yoma), dipterocarp forests where there is pronounced dry season, evergreen forests prevail where there is good rainfall and moisture regime, hill evergreen and subalpine forests at high attitude and subtropical regions, dry thorny forests in places with very low rainfall. In Myanmar, there are six national parks, one near Yangon and others spread all over. In these parks there are bamboos growing naturally or some planted for aesthetic reasons.

Myanmar used to have a big Bambusetum with more than 20 species in Yangon on the then Rangoon University Campus and it was destroyed due to a new housing project. There is a small bambusetum with 11 species in the FRI Campus, Yezin. In Pyinmana there is a Botanical Garden with 5 bamboo species.

Distribution and other aspects

Bamboos usually grow mixed with other species and they form the understorey in high forests. An almost pure bamboo forest of Melocanna baccifera, is found in the Arakan Yoma crossing from Pathein and Pye into Rakhine State, mixed with other species like Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa longispiculata and Thyrsostachys oliveri scattered over the range. A pure bamboo break of Dendrocalamus giganteus used to exist in Myanaung area as reported by Gamble in his book “A Manual of Indian Timber”. Other Bamboo breaks of Bambusa bambos and B. tulda are found along stream banks and lower hill slopes.

Myanmar has 17 genera, about 100 species and 4 varieties of bamboo (See Appendix I and II). They range from small species, Arundinaria armata and A. racemosa, found on high mountains, to very large species like Dendrocalamus giganteus, D. brandisii and D. hamiltonii with culm length reaching over 35 m (105 ft) with diameter 25 cm (8-10 inches). Both monopodial and sympodial species are found in Myanmar. And many species are indigenous and a few are introduced from neighbouring countries.

The following species are commercially important.



Local Name

1.

Bambusa bambos Voss

Kyaket-wa

2.

Bambusa longispiculata Gamble

Tabindaing-wa

3.

Bambusa polymorpha Munro

Kyathaung-wa

4.

Cephalostachyum pergracile Munro

Tin-wa

5.

Dendrocalamus brandisii Kurz

Kyalo-wa

6.

D. giganteus Munro

Wabo-gyi

7.

D. hamiltonii Nees

Wabo-myetsangye

8.

D. longispathus Kurz

Wanet

9.

D. membranaceus Munro

Waphyu

10.

D. strictus Nees

Hmyin-wa

11.

Dinochloa macllelandii Gamble

Wanwe

12.

Gigantochloa rostrata Wong

Waya

13.

Melocanna baccifera Kurz

Kayin-wa

14.

Thyrsostachys regia Bennet

Htiyo-wa


Short notes on the above species are given in Appendix II.

Some species of the following genera are found on very high mountains: Arundinaria (4000 m), Bambusa (1600 m), Celphalostachyum (1600 m), Chimonobambusa (2000 m), Dendrocalamus (2000 m), Dinochloa (1600 m), and Klemachloa (2200 m). Distribution of Bamboos in various States and Divisions in Myanmar is given in Appendix III.

For aesthetic reasons many bamboos are cultivated, examples, Bambusa bambos (hedge plants with thorns), B. vulgaris (the yellow bamboo) (with longitudinal green stripes) and B. wamin (with its swollen internodes), also used for landscaping, house gardens, parks, zoological gardens, in and around big cities in Myanmar. Some bamboos such as Bambusa longispiculata, B. wamin and Thrysostachys regia are planted in many Buddhist Monastries, in the villages and gardens in urban areas for local sales.

Structure of bamboo forests: Some studies were made in 3 areas where a great quantity of bamboo was found growing. The areas are:

(1) Bago Yoma Area
a. Eastern part with bamboo area - 5969.95 km2
b. Western part with bamboo area - 2224.8 km2
(2) Rakhine Yoma Area
with bamboo area - 5059.27 km2
(3) Tanintharyee Division
with bamboo area - 1872.57 km2
The species studied are Bambusa polymorpha and Cephalostachyum pergracile for areas (1) and (3) where they are abundant and Melocanna baccifera for area (2). The main objective of studies was for extraction of bamboo for paper mill. The species selected are abundantly growing in those areas and also because of their usefulnesss in making paper pulp. The studies included counting of number of culms per clump, number of clumps per area and the ages of clump. For M. baccifera the counting was done per unit area.

Average no. of culm/clump

(i) B. polymorpha = 10 to 13 culms
(ii) C. pergracile = 9 to 14 culms
Average no. of clump/acre
(i) B. polymorpha = 30
(ii) C. pergracile = 25 + others = 60 clumps
Ages of clump (average)
(i) B. polymorpha (1 yr = 3), (2 yr = 3) (3 yr & above = 7)
(ii) C. pergracile (1 yr = 3), (2 yr = 4) (3 yr & above 7)
Average ratio of the above spp is 1:1:3 or 1:1:2.
Number of culms/acre
Melocanna baccifera = About 25 000 culms
25 000 culms/area means the distance between them approximately 1 ft 4 inches (45 cm).
Felling cycle for bamboos: Because of the different ages of culms contained within clump for B. polymorpha and C. pergracile and number of bamboo per unit area for M. baccifera, the following cycles are suggested by forest department.
(1) 7 to 15 year cycle - B. polymorpha and C. pergracile
(2) 3 to 5 year cycle - M. baccifera.
The suggested felling cycles were calculated depending on amount of output of bamboo/ ton in certain areas.
e.g.
Rakhine area - 112 000 tons (with 15 year cycle)
Tanintharyee - 42 998 tons (with 7 year cycle)
Taungoo - 13 392 tons (with 7 year cycle)
Flowering of bamboos: Flowering of bamboos of different species was observed but details very seldom recorded. The following are some records on bamboo flowering in Myanmar:

1860

- Bambusa polymorpha - along Bago Yoma

1936

- B. polymorpha - Gregarious flowering, district by district for some years continuously.

1909 to 1913

- Flowering of Melocanna bambusoides widespread along Arakan Yoma.

1933

- Again in Rakhine Area of the same species

1960

- Chin Hills of the same species.

1981-82

- B. polymorpha, Dendrocalamus strictus and Cephalostachyum pergracile flowering along Bago Yoma west of Taungoo and Oktwin District.

1997*

- Flowering of Cephalostachyum pergracile in Moswe Forest Area, west of Pyinmana recorded.

Notes: At the same time of flowering of C. pergracile in Moswe, vegetative propagules planted from the same species about 45 miles away, near a paper mill also flowered, although they were 9 years old.
It was said that the dryness of bamboos (wa-thown) is connected to their life span of clumps. Life span of the following species are recorded.

1.

Bambusa bambos

30-32 years

2.

B. longispiculata

30 years

3.

B. tulda

35-42 years

4.

B. polymorpha

60 years

5.

Cephalostachyum pergracile

20 years

6.

Dendrocalamus strictus

30 years

7.

D. hamiltonii

30 years

8.

D. giganteus

80 years

9.

D. brandisii

60-80 years

10.

Melocanna bambusoides

40-45 years


Propagation methods: Many villagers propagate bamboos by using rhizomes. Scientific studies on propagation methods started recently. The following offsets were successful in propagating many important bamboos.

1. Offsets and Clump-division
2. Rhizome cuttings
3. Culm cuttings
4. Layering
5. Rhizome cutting of wild seedlings.
The last method was developed in Forest Research Institute, Myanmar. The whole or part of the rhizomes dug up, separated into units and then each planted in plastic bag in the nursery for 2-3 months before the planting season. With the onset of rain they were planted out in the field. They were esay to transport as they were small and the cost was less.

Propagation by seeds was practised whenever seeds were available. Seeds were collected, cleaned and sown in germination boxes and after germination they were transferred to plastic bags before outplanting in the field.

Tissue culture method is not yet used as trained persons are lacking and the method is very costly.

Plantations: There are abundant bamboos everywhere in Myanmar, therefore it is sometimes thought not necessary to have plantations. In villages when one is in need of bamboo, one goes into the forest nearby and gets it. Villagers know how to grow bamboo but never planned to have plantation. They grow in the house garden mostly for ornamental reasons or as a fence around the compound.

The villagers also know that once the bamboo flowers, it dies. They also know not to cut all the culms from a clump. They differentiate the bamboos as “Wanu” (young, one-year-old) “Tanyin” (middle, two-year old) and “Wayint” (mature, more than three-year old). Actually depletion of bamboos in nearby forest is mainly due to cutting for industrial purpose or taungyar (shifting cultivations) and not due to local use. Maybe in the near future, with the knowledge we gain through research, there will be plantations established.

Bamboo research: Research on bamboos before the last 2 decades was mainly concerned with utilization. Studies on low-cost roofing methods, different patterns of weaving, use of bamboos as walling materials, fence building, and their preservation methods were described (See Appendix IV). Raw material availability for paper mills was also studied. Many bamboo forest areas were aerial-photographed. Inventory of bamboos species in some localities was carried out.

As stated earlier, many people think that cultivation of bamboos is not necessary as there are abundant resources of bamboos. Only when Forest Research Institute (FRI) in Yezin was established, scientific study concerning bamboos was started. Before the founding of FRI Yezin many foresters studied bamboos mostly for utilization aspect. Some important references are mentioned (1-17). The following aspects were studied.

1. Use of bamboo shingles as low cost roofing materials.

2. Studies on bamboo propagation.

3. Testing methods for propagation on a large scale.

4. Effects of tending operations on some plots of naturally regenerated bamboos.

5. Vegetative propagation of bamboo as raw material for paper mill.

6. A preliminary investigation on the production of bamboo boards.*(10)

7. Thinning of trial-planted bamboo clumps.*

8. Silica content of some important bamboos.*

9. Pulping on bleaching properties of Kayin-wa (Melocanna bambusoides)

10. Relationship between fiber morphology and pulp sheet properties of burmese bamboos. (14, 15)

* Note: They are ongoing research works.
Future research work will concentrate on conservation and improvement and utilization research. A general survey on bamboos concerning species diversity also needs to be carried out.

Conservation and improvement: Commercially important species will be selected in the first place to determine their quality. Ex situ conservation will be carried out. The following bamboo species are selected for conservation and improvement work.

1. Bambusa polymorpha
2. Cephalostachyum pergracile
3. Dendrocalamus brandisii
4. D. giganteus
5. D. hamiltonii
6. D. strictus
7. Melocanna baccifera
The following criteria are followed:
1. The culms should be healthy and superior.

2. In sympodial type a clump must have more than 7 mature culms with at least 5 strong new shoots developing.

3. In monopodial type, a group of more than 6-7 single culms should be selected.

4. Free from diseases and insect attack.

Selection of each species for propagation will be made from at least 6 places along the latitudes and longitudes and also from different altitudes (or from different forest types). Matured culms or clumps of more than 3 years old will be selected.

The selected materials will be propagated vegetatively using the methods already known. If seeds are available they will be collected and used.

The propagated materials will be planted in a special plantation.

For utilization research, the industrial processes for timber and wood chemistry section of the FRI is testing bamboos as raw material for producing hard boards, etc.

General survey of bamboos will be carried out in all the states or divisions one at a time basis. Records on bamboos should be compared and updated with on-site checking. Survey in general and selection of superior species of bamboo will lead to establishment of Bambusetum and Bamboo Herbarium.

A bambusetum has been established on 10 ha land in the bamboo growing forest area about 65 km west of FRI, Yezin At least 5 clumps of each species, starting with commercially important species planted.

Bamboo Herbarium is located at the Botany and Tree Improvement Division at FRI, Yezin. Floral specimens will be collected whenever possible and preserved in the herbarium. The collecting of bamboo culms, rhizomes and leaf-sheaths will be made. Many species which are growing in accessible areas will be collected first and the remote areas later.

Uses of bamboos: Bamboo is aptly termed as poor man's timber throughout the tropics. Because of its strength, straightness, lightness, variation in sizes and elasticity etc; bamboo is of immense use. Almost every house has bamboo made utensils. A house can be built using only bamboo materials which would last for at least 10 years. It can be used for scaffolding, ladders, mats, baskets, fencing, containers, pipes, umbrellas, tool handles, spears, bow and arrows, fans, toys, musical instruments, spoons, chopsticks, tooth picks, cooking pots, rafts, binders in place of ropes, fishing rods, furniture, handicrafts and many other articles of daily use (Appendix IV). People eat young bamboo shoots by boiling them in water until they are soft and palatable or cook them mixed with meat and other vegetables, or preserve them for some time wrapped with banana leaves in earth-pits until they become soft and tasty. Bamboos are eaten not only by human beings but also by elephants and other herbivores.

Management of bamboo forests

Felling system: It is suggested to use selection-felling system and clear felling should be avoided. Young and middle age (Wa nu and Tanyin) bamboos should be used for paper pulp and other purposes like making mats and walling materials. Even from the mature bamboos only suitable culms should be cut. It is better to cut culms for thinning clumps. At the same time diseased or injured culms should be removed.

Felling cycle should be 3-6 years. If the ratio of ages of bamboos in a clump is 1:1:3 it means the age of the bamboo forest is about 5 years old. So the felling cycle should be less than 5 years. 1. Felling areas should be demarcated and declared open for felling. If not, felling should not be allowed. 2. Only mature bamboo culms should be harvested. 3. Clear felling should be prohibited. 4. Harvesting of bamboo shoots be only in the open areas, and allow some of them so that young shoots will reach maturity. 5. Undesirable culms should be cleared at the same time.

References

1. Study on Bamboos for raw materials U Myint Tin, U Than Myint and U Pe Thein.

2. Study on Bamboo for Paper Mill Raw Material, Forest Research and Training Circle Notes.

3. Use of Bamboo as Roofing Materials Khin Maung Gyaw, Kaw Lu Adi and Nyunt Naing.

4. Use for Bamboos as Walling Materials U Tin Hla.

5. Photo-Interpretation of Bamboos in Aerial Photographs by U Aung Myint FR and TC FD.

6. Regional Studies on Bamboo Propagation U Saw C. Doo, U Htun Lynn and Dr. Nyan Htun 5/82-83 FRI Paper.

7. Testing the Methods of Propagation of Bamboos. Nyan Htun, and U Saw C. Doo 3/83-84 FRI Paper.

8. Effect of Tending Operations on some plots of Naturally Regenerated Bamboos Nyan Htun and U Thet Htun 2/86-87 FRI Paper.

9. Vegetative Propagation of Bamboos as A Raw Material for Paper Mill U Saw C. Doo and Daw Thida Mundt. 3/95-96 FRI Paper.

10. A Preliminary Investigation on the Production of Bamboo Boards, Daw Khin May Lwin FRI Research Leaflet 10/1997 FRI Paper.

11. Notes on Bamboo Forests of Myanmar, U Pe Thein 1989.

12. Bamboos and canes in Burma Forest department.

13. Bamboos and canes in Burma Supplement-1 Forest department.

14. Pulping and Bleaching Properties of Kyain-wa Daw TinTin Yee and companies CRO Paper.

15. Relationship between Fiber Morphology and Pulp Sheet Properties of Burmese Bamboo, Nwe Ni Wai CRO Paper.

16. Use of Bamboo Shingles as Low Cost Roofing Material, U Sein Win FRI Paper 17/ 81-82.

17. List of Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Hundley and Chit Ko Ko. FD Publication, revised ed. 1986.

(Most of the above papers are published in Burmese language; more details regarding the publications can be obtained from the author - Eds).

Appendix I: List of Bamboo species in Myanmar (Note a high degree of synonomy in this list)

(including local names)

1. Arundinaria armata Gamble - Mai-tut (Shan state)

2. A. griffithiana Munro (Syn. Sinarundinaria griffithiana. Choo and Renv)

3. A. kurzii Gamble

4. A. phar Camus - phar (Chin)

5. A. racemosa Munro - Ti (Chin)

6. A. warrdii Bor

7. Bambusa affinis Munro - Wa-bwe*

8. B. bambos Voss. - Kya-khat-wa

9. B. auriculata Kurz - Talagu-wa

10. B. balcooa Roxb.

11. B. binghami Gamble - Wa-chat

12. B. burmanica Gamble - Thaik-wa gyi

13. B. copelandi Gamble - Shan-wa-gyi

14. B. -griffithiana Munro - Wa myin

15. B. kingiana Gamble - Thaik wabo

16. B. lineata Munro (Syn. B. atra. Lindl)

17. B. longispiculata Gamble - Tabindaing-wa

18. B. macrostachya Kurz

19. B. marginata Munro - Wa thabut

20. B. nana Roxb. (Syn. B. multiplex. Raedsch) - Pilaw-pinan-wa

21. B. oliveriana Gamble - Wapyu-gale

22. B. pallida Munro - Gya-wa

23. B. polymorpha Munro - Kyathaung

24. B. schizostachyoides Kurz (Syn. Schizostachyum kurzii. Majumdar)

25. B. sinthana E.G. Camus - Sinthana

26. B. teres Ham

27. B. thalaw-wa E.G. Camus - Thalaw-wa

28. B. tulda Roxb. - Thaik, Thaikwa

29. B. villosula Kurz

30. B. vulgaris Schrad. - Shwe-wa

31. B. wamin E.G Camus - Wamin

32. *Cephalostachyum burmanicum Parker & Parkin-son-kyat-wa

33. C. capitatum Munro - La-Kien (Kachin)

34. C. flavescens Kurz

35 C. fuchsianum Gamble

36. C. griffithii Kurz Syn

37. C. pallidum Munro - Wa -tin-kha

38. C. pergracille Munro - Tin-wa

39. C. virgatum Kurz - Waba, Wa-byauk

40. Chimonobanbusa gallatlyi (Gamble) Mikino Syn.

41. C. khasiana (Munro) Nakai Syn.

42. Dendrocalamus brandisii Kurz - Wabo, Kyalo-wa

43. D. burmanicus A. Camus

44. D. calostachyus Kurz - Wa-gyi, wabo

45. D. collettianus Gamble

46. D. flagellifer Munro

47. D. giganteus Munro - Wabo-gyi, Wabo

48. D. hamiltonii Nees - Wabo-myet-san-gye

49. D. hookeri Munro - Wabo-e

50. D. kurzii, Gamble; Kobah

* Most of the Cephlostachyum species are now placed in Schizostachyum.

51. D. latiflorus Murno - Wa-ni

52. D. longispathus Kurz - Wa-net, Waya

53. D. longifimbriatus Gamble - Wa-pyaw

54. D. membranaceus Munro - Wa-pyu, Hmyin-byu

55. D. messerii Blatter - Wabo-e

56. D. strictus Nees - Hmyin, Myin-wa

57. D. strictus Nees var. prainiana Gamble

58. D. wabo E.G. Camus - Shan-wabo

59. Dendrochloa distans C.E. Parkinson - Tamyin-wa

60. Dinochloa andamanica Kurz Syn.

61. D. compactiflora (Kurz) McClure

62. D. marginata Munro - Wa-me (Karan)

63. D. maclellandii Kurz - Wa-nwe

64. Gigantochloa apus Kurz - Wa-do, Ko-wa

65. G. compressa Parker - Talagu-wa

66. G. kachinensis E.G. Camus - Kachin-wa, Wa-net

67. G. kathaensis E.G. Camus - Katha-wa

68. G. macrostachya Kurz - Waypu-gyi, Wa-net, Tabindaing-wa

69. G. mogaungensis E.G. Camus - Mogaung-wa

70. G. toungooensis E.G. Camus - Toungoo-wa

71. G. verticillata (Willd) Munro Syn. G. pseudoarundinacea Widjaja - Wa-pyu

72. G. wanet E.G. Camus - Wa-net

73. G. wunthoensis E.G., Camus - Wuntho-wa

74. G. yunzalinensis E.G. Camus - Yunzalin - wa

75. Klemachloa delinens Parker

76. Melocanna baccifera (Roxb) Kurz - Kayin-wa, Tabindaing-wa

77. M. humilis Kurz - Kayin-wa-gale (Syn. M. arundina Parkinson)

78. Neohouzeaua dulloa A. Camus Syn. - Teinostachyum dulloa Gamble; Schizostachyum dullooa Majumdar - wa-zun

79. N. helferi Gamble Syn. - Teinostachyum helferi Syn. Schizostachyum helferi Majumdar Gamble; Pseudostachyum helferi Kurz - Wa-thabut

80. N. stricta Parker-thabut-wa

81. N. tavoyana Gamble - Dawe-wa

82. Oxytenanthera albo-ciliata Munro Syn. - Gigantochloa. albociliata Kurz; Wa-gok, Wapyu-gale

83. O. housseusii Pilger - Hmyin-wa

84. O. lacei Gamble

85. O. nigrociliata Munro Syn. Gigantochloa rostrata Wong - Waya, Wa-ba

86. O. parviflora Brandis - Thaik-tu-hmyin-tu

87. O. thwaitesii Munro Syn. Pseudoxytenanthera monadelpha Soderstr & Ellis - Kyaugwa-ame

88. Phyllostachys bawa E.G. Camus - Bawa

89. P. mannii Gamble - Sedan-wa

90. P. sedan E.G. Camus - Sedan-wa

91. Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro Syn. Schizostachyum polymorphum Majumdar - Wani-ba, Pauk-wa

92. P. wakha E.G. Camus - Wa-kha

93. Schizostachyum longispiculatum Kurz

94. S. rogersii (sp.nov.) Brandis

95. S. tavoyanum Gamble

96. Sinobambusa elegans (Kurz) Nakai Syn. (See also 36 with which it is synonymous)

97. Teinostachyum griffithii, Munro

98. T. dullooa, Gamble; Thaikwabo, gya-wa (See also 78 with which it is synomymous)

99. T. helferi, Gamble; Wanwe, Wathabut

100. Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble Syn. T. regia Bennet - Thana-wa

101. T. siamensis Gamble - Htiyo-wa

Appendix II: Notes on some important commercial species

1. Bambusa polymorpha Munro Kyathaung-wa

A large bamboo of about 50 to 80 feet in height, gregarious and tufted. Culms greyish-white when young, diameter of up to 6 inches. Culm sheaths ½ length of internode, this bamboo is abundant through out the moist areas of upper mixed deciduous forests of lower Myanmar, particularly on the lower slopes and in well drained valleys, associate of Teak (Tectona grandis).

2. Bambusa longispiculata Gamble Tabindaing-wa

Medium size, tufted, culm length about 40 feet, diameter 3 inches, found in certain parts of Myanmar, Taninthayee and Mogok (Ruby mines) district at about 3500 feet, also planted in monasteries and gardens.

3. Bambusa bambos Voss Kyakal-wa

Very common, two forms according to situation, one a magnificent large bright green bamboo with thick-walled culms reaching of 80-100 feet, diameter of 4-7 inches and another dwarf form, second form commonest, the species has characteristic thorny branches, dwarf forms are used for hedges around houses and gardens.

4. Cephalostachyum pergracile Munro Tin-wa

Deciduous bamboo, arborescent, tufted with glaucous-green culms up to 30-50 feet in height, diameter 2-3 inches, wall thickness ½ inch. Culm-sheaths orange or brick-red, covered with black hairs, ½ the length of internode, species is found along with teak and pyinkado (Xylia kerii), used extensively and especially for cooking and baking glutinous rice, inner film of the culm coming with the baked rice.

5. Dendrocalamus brandisii Kurz Kyalo-wa

Very large evergreen tufted bamboo, culms attaining 80-120 feet in height and 5-8 inches in diameter, largest bamboo along with D. giganteus found in wet evergreen forest throughout the greater part of Myanmar, in Kachin, Shan and along Than Lwin (Salwin River) southwards to Sitting river.

6. Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro Wabo-gyi

Largest bamboo in Myanmar, height up to 80-120 feet, culm diameter 8 to 10 inches, clumps are dense and naked in lower portion, culm sheaths hard, shiny inside, hairy outside with a length of 15 to 20 inches, found from Upper Chindwin through the Shan hills to Maulmyaing (Moulmein).

7. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn Wabo-Myetsangye

A large tufted bamboo, height up to 80 feet, diameter 6 to 7 inches, culms thin-walled, white when young, green-grey when old, culms often overhanging, almost horizontal and sometimes erect, widespread in the northern part.

8. Dendrocalamus longispathus Kurz Wanet

Large bamboo, culm length reaching 60 feet, diameter 3 to 4 inches with the wall 1/2 inch thick, Culm sheaths 12 inches long, overlapping internodes, densely covered with dark stinging hairs, occurs mostly along the side of ravines on moist, fertile loamy soils.

9. Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro Waphyu

Graceful bamboo found through out Myanmar and Kachin hills up to 3000 feet, height upto 70 feet, diameter 5 inches, young culms white, powdery, bright green when old, internodes 9-20 inches long, culm sheath longer than internodes, sheath deciduous, clumps are rather open.

10. Dendrocalamus strictus Nees Hmyin

A densely tufted, deciduous middle-sized bamboo with strong thick walled or solid culms, size variable with the locality, 20 to 50 feet high with culm diameter of 1 to 3 inches, occurs in mixed deciduous forests, culms glaucous when young and greyish-green, often blotched or yellowish when old, culm sheaths shorter than internodes, 10-15 inches long, glaucous or covered with yellowish brown hairs.

11. Dinochloa maclellandii Kurz Wanwe

Evergreen, erect or scandent in habit, culms somewhat square in cross section, reaching up to 100 feet in height, diameter 1-2 inches, Alternate joints bend in different ways giving a zigzag appearance.

12. Melocanna baccifera Kurz Kayin-wa

Evergreen, single culms about 2 feet apart, culms straight, tall, green, when young but straw-colored when old, they reach up to 50-70 feet with 1½ to 3 inches in diameter. Culm sheaths persistent, long acuminate pseudoplylls, fruits large with thick pericarp; 3 to 5 inches long and 2 to 3 inches broad and pear-shaped, fruits and seeds are edible, found in Arakan crossing from Pathein and Pye into Rakhine State. Gregarious and abundant.

13. Oxytenanthera nigrociliata Munro Waya

Evergreen, densely tufted, gregarious, culm up to 50 feet, 4 inches in diameter, dark green, sometimes with longitudinal stripes, nodes prominent, culm sheaths densely covered with black hairs 6 to 16 inches long.

14. Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble Htiyo-wa

Graceful, tufted, straight culms, naked in lower parts, nodes not prominent, culms up to 25 to 40 feet in height, 1/3 inch diameter, culm sheaths deciduous, as long as internodes, 8 to 13 inches long.

Appendix III: Bamboo genera and species in different states of Myanmar

(Not accounting for recent shifts of species between genera)

1. Kachin State: - 14 Genera and 38 species

Arundinaria, Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Chimonobambusa, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Melocanna, Neohouzea, Oxytenanthera, Phyllostachys, Pseudostachyum, Teinostachyum, Thyrsostachys.

2. Kayah State: - 3 Genera and 6 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus.

3. Karen State: - 9 Genera and 22 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Neohouzea, Oxytenanthera, Phyllostachys, Thyrsostachys.

4. Chin State: - 9 Genera and 17 species

Arundinaria, Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Melocanna, Oxytenanthera, Pseudostachyum, Teinostachyum.

5. Sagaing Division: - 9 Genera 25 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Chimonobambusa, Dendrocalamus, Gigantochloa, Melocanna, Neohouzea, Pseudostachyum, Thyrsostachys.

6. Magwe Division: - 5 Genera 12 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Thyrsostachys.

7. Mandalay Division: - 9 Genera 20 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Neohouzea, Oxytenanthera, Phyllostachys, Thyrsostachys.

8. Mon State: - 9 Genera 21 species

Arundinaria, Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Neohouzea, Oxytenanthera, Thyrsostachys.

9. Tanintharyee Division: - 9 Genera 26 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dendrochloa, Gigantochloa, Melocanna, Neohouzea, Oxytenanthera, Thyrsostachys.

10. Rakhine State: - 7 Genera 12 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Melocanna, Neohouzea, Oxytenanthera.

11. Bago Division: - 9 Genera 25 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Melocanna, Oxytenanthera, Pseudostachyum, Thyrsostachys.

12. Ayeyarwaddy Division: - 7 Genera 13 species

Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Melocanna, Oxytenanthera, Thyrsostachys.

13. Shan State: - 8 Genera 25 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Oxytenanthera, Phyllostachys, Thyrsostachys.

14. Yangon Division: - 8 Genera 16 species

Bambusa, Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Gigantochloa, Neohouzea, Oxytenanthera, Thyrsostachys.

Appendix IV (a-e): Gadjets used and weaving patterns of bamboo

Appendix IVb:

Appendix IVc:


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