Despite these fundamental interactions between wild biodiversity and agricultural biodiversity, research, policy and conservation actions in these two spheres are often separated and conducted independently. In our chapter 'An argument for integrating wild and agricultural biodiversity conservation' we argue that there may be many opportunities to better integrate the conservation of wild and agricultural biodiversity. For instance, opportunities for integration could be in the form of designing Payments for Ecosystem Services Schemes (PES – see Farley and Costanza 2010) that incorporate elements of PACS (Payment for Agrobiodiversity Conservation Services – see Narloch et al. 2011). Benefits of integration could include a) providing a more holistic and systems-based approach that can better account for synergies and trade-offs amongst elements of biodiversity (capitalizing on synergies, managing and mitigating trade-offs), b) efficiencies in conducting dual-conservation actions in the same locations, c) enabling biodiversity to be more directly and effectively used for food security and human well-being, and d) designing and testing context-specific approaches to integrating Sustainable Development Goals that may be perceived as being in opposition (e.g. SDGs 2, ‘Zero Hunger’ and 15. ‘Life on Land’).
In summary, the ongoing loss of agricultural biodiversity is in many respects a sleeping giant in conservation arenas. Yet the continued loss of the very source of our capacity to feed future generations with a diverse diet sourced from a wide range of plants and animals, renders both developed and developing nations increasingly vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity. Integrating agricultural biodiversity into efforts to conserve wild diversity offers an established route to safeguarding healthy and diverse diets for the growing global population of the future.
Angelsen, A., Jagger, P., Babigumira, R., Belcher, B., Hogarth, N. J., Bauch, S., Boerner, J, Smith-Hall, C., Wunder, S., 2014. Environmental Income and Rural Livelihoods: A Global-Comparative Analysis. World Development, 64(S1), S12-S28. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.03.006
Farley, J. and Costanza, R., 2010. Payments for ecosystem services: from local to global. Ecological economics, 69(11), pp.2060-2068.
Monfreda, C., Ramankutty, N. and Foley, J.A., 2008. Farming the planet: 2. Geographic distribution of crop areas, yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the year 2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22(1).
Narloch, U., Drucker, A.G. and Pascual, U. (2011) ‘Payments for agrobiodiversity conservation services for sustained on-farm utilization of plant and animal genetic resources’, Ecological Economics, vol 70, no 11, pp1837-1845